1. Discuss the roles played by the rising merchant class, the new monarchies, Renaissance humanism, and the Reformation in the development of European Colonialism.
The merchant class rose beside the economic growth. It expanded commerce and trade in basic goods. Commercial expansion stimulated the growth of markets and towns. Alliance between commerce and political power was important in the development of European Colonialism. New monarchies promised control over realms. They replaced the lords that peasants were rising against. The Renaissance celebrated human possibility. Renaissance humanism created a critical exponent of the inquisitive and acquisitive spirit. It was shown in arts and architecture. Artists produced heroic images of men and women. The Reformation was a religious revolt against Catholicism.
2. Define a “frontier of inclusion.” In what ways does this description apply to the Spanish empire in the Americas?
A “frontier of inclusion” is in the New World in colonies of Spain, male colonists intermarried with African or Indian women creating mix-ancestry groups. This is what Spanish communities were characterized. This description applied to the Spanish empire in the Americas because Indian genes were passed through generations of mestizo and mulatto people who became the majority of the population in the Spanish American empire.
3. Make a list of the major exchanges that took place between the Old World and the New World in the centuries following the European invasion of America. Discuss some of the effects these exchanges had on the course of modern history.
Major exchanges such as disease, corn, tomatoes, sugar, rice, and coffee were major exchanges that took place between the Old World and the New World. These exchanges affected the course of modern history because disease killed most of the population and we still have some of these diseases today. Corn and tomatoes...