There isn’t a lot that historians can conclude about the ancient Indus river valley civilizations, but there is a lot we can infer from analyzing the evidence that was left behind. The ancient people of the Indus river valley had great agricultural success due to seasonal monsoon winds creating two crop cycles, which inspired the belief of benevolent gods, a loose government, and likely a peaceful society because resources were abundant. The ancient people learned to manipulate the land, resources, and their time to advance their culture and create methods of urban planning, Indus-glyphs, and conveniences like indoor plumbing. These factors are likely what made the civilizations within the Indus river valley so prosperous.
There are many explanations for why the people of the Indus river valley were so agriculturally successful, but they all lead back to the fact that they had two crop cycles. Most other ancient river valleys depended on a single crop cycle, which doesn’t provide a civilization with the variety or plentiful supply that the people of the Indus river valley enjoyed. The reason why the Indus river valley had two crop cycles rather than one is due to the winter monsoon and the spring snowmelt. Commonly mistaken for rain storms, monsoons are seasonal winds caused by pressure gradients between the land and water due to the land and the ocean changing temperature. Every winter, the hot air rises off of the surface of the land, and cool, moist air off the ocean rushes in to fill the gap, creating wind. Usually when the cold front smashes into the Himalayan Mountains, a cloud forms and drenches the mountains in rain; however, this can also bring drought. The rain water streams down into a delta formation at the foot of the mountain, flooding the rivers and bringing rich silt to the land for stupendous farming. The second crop cycle is caused by the spring snowmelt. In the event that the winter monsoon brings rain, the mountains are left with a clean...
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