Ap Human, Key Issue 1 Notes

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WHERE ARE ENGLISH-LANGUAGE SPEAKERS DISTRIBUTED?
Origin and Diffusion of English
• Second language most spoken.
o Official in 50 countries (more than any other language). • English Colonies
o English migrated with language as established colonies. ▪ Official language of most foreign colonies. o North America (Jamestown 1607 and Plymouth in 1620). ▪ After defeat of French, English is main language. o First to North America, then Ireland, South Asia, South Pacific, and southern Africa. o 1899 – won Philippines from Spain.

▪ English remained official language after independence. • Origin of English in England
o Celts around 2000BC (450 pushed by tribes in mainland). o Germans
▪ Angles, Jutes, and Saxons.
▪ England – Angles’ land.
• Angles from Schleswig-Holstein.
▪ From Denmark and Germany.
▪ As groups isolated themselves, created new languages such as English. o Vikings defeated in invasion, but some remained.
o Norman Invasion in 1066
▪ French as official language for next 300 years (leaders had to speak French). ▪ 1204 with King John conflict with France. ▪ 1362 – Statute of Pleading passed by Parliament to have English as official language. • Parliament conducted business in French until 1489. ▪ During this period, French and Germanic languages mingled. Dialects of English

• Dialect: regional variation of a language
o Reflect distinctive features of the environment where groups live. o English migration throughout history: many dialects. o Standard language: dialect that is well established and widely recognized as most acceptable fro government… ▪ British Received Pronunciation: standard language of...
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