Ch. 1 Thinking Geographically
Key Issue 1: How do geographers describe where things are?
Map- a two-dimensional model of Earth’s surface, or a portion of it. Place- a specific point of Earth distinguished by a particular character. Region- an area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features. Scale- the relationship between a map’s distances and the actual distances on Earth. Space- the physical gap between two objects.
Connections- relationships among people and objects across a barrier of space. Cartography- the science of map-making.
-Earliest surviving maps are from Babylonian clay tablets, (c. 2300 B.C.) -Aristotle was first to demonstrate that Earth is spherical. -Eratosthenes was the first person to use the word geography.
Projection- the method of transferring locations on Earth’s surface to a map. Geographic Information System- (GIS) a computer that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic date. Remote Sensing- the acquisition of data about Earth’s surface for a satellite. Global Positioning System- (GPS) a system that determines one’s exact location on Earth.
Key Issue 2: Why is each point on Earth unique?
Location- the position that something occupies on Earth’s surface. Toponym- the name given to a place on Earth.
Place names commonly have:
-British origins in N. America and Australia
-Portuguese origins in Brazil
-Spanish origins elsewhere in Latin America
-Dutch origins in S. Africa
-The Board of Geographical Names was established in the late nineteenth century to be the final arbiter of names on U.S. maps.
Site- the physical character of a place.
Situation- the location of a place relative to other places. Meridian- (longitude) an arc drawn between the North and South poles. Parallel- (latitude) a circle drawn around the globe parallel to equator and perpendicular to meridians. Greenwich Mean Time- (GMT) the internationally agreed official time reference for Earth. International Date Line- the longitude at which one moves forward or backward 1 day. Cultural Landscape- defined by Carl Sauer, it is the area of Earth modified by human habitation. Also regional studies. Formal region- an area within which everyone shares one or more distinctive characteristics. Functional region- an area organized around a node or focal point. Vernacular region- a place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity. Also the area in which a specific language dialect is widely used. Mental map- one’s perceived image of the surrounding landscape’s organization. Culture- the body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people. Cultural ecology- the geographic study of human-environment relations. Environmental determinism- belief that the physical environment causes social development.
-Alexander von Humboldt
-Ellen Churchill Semple
-Ellsworth Huntington (argued that climate was determining factor)
Possibilism- the counter to e.d. (above), it is the belief that while environment can limit certain actions of a people, it cannot wholly predestine their development. Resources- the substances found on Earth that are useful to people.
-Climate is often classified using the system developed by German Vladimir Köppen. The modified Koppen system divides the world into five main climate regions:
-A Tropical Climates
-B Dry Climates
-C Warm Mid-Latitude Climates
-D Cold Mid-Latitude Climates
-E Polar Climates
Each of these divisions is further subdivided based on precipitation levels and seasons.
Polder- a piece of land that is created by draining water from an area. First built in 13th century in the Netherlands. Key Issue 3: Why are different places similar?
Globalization- a process that involves the entire world and results in making...