Chapter 3: Outline
1. What is MIGRATION?
* Migration is inherently geographical.
a) Cyclic Movement- involves journeys that begin at our home base and bring us back to it. * Commuting the journey from home to work and again takes from minutes to hours and can involves several modes of transportation. * Seasonal Movement – every autumn hundreds of thousands of travelers leave their home in Canada and the northern parts of the United States. a) It has huge economic consequences in depopulated northern towns. 3. Nomadism- is a matter of survival, culture, and tradition. a) It takes place alone lone- familiar routes repeated time. b) Periodic Movement- involves returning home.
1. Migrant Labor- involves millions of workers in the United States and tens of millions worldwide. 2. Transhumance- a specialized form of periodic movement a. A system of pastoral farming in which ranchers move livestock according to the seasonal availability of pastures. b. It involves a long period of residential relocation. 3. Military Service- is another form of periodic movements. c. Ex- 10 million U.S. citizens, including military personal and their families, are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty that can last several years. c) Types of Migration
1. When movements results in permanent relocation across significant Distances it is classified as migration b) International Migration- movement across country borders. * Voluntary- causes usually related to economic push and pull factors. * Forced Migration- involves the imposition of authority or power. c) Internal Immigration- movements within the country. * It could be in a country from one to another side of the region. * It could be from Arkansas to Tennessee.
d) Emigrant VS Immigrant
* Emigrant – when a person leaves his or her home country d) Emigration subtracts from the population of a country. * Immigrant- When the same migrant enters a new country. e) Immigration adds to the population of a country.
2. Why do people MIGRATE?
* Most people migrate for economic opportunity, cultural freedom, and environmental comfort. e) Forced Migration
* Ex- The largest and most devastating forced migration in the history of humanity was the salve trade. f) Push and Pull Factors
* Push factors-induces people to move from a location. * Pull factors- includes people to move into a new location. g) Types of Push and Pull Factors
* Economic Push and Pull Factors:
f) Most people migrate for economic reasons.
* Ex- Migrants from Mexico comes to the United States looking for work. * Political Push and Pull Factors:
g) Political instability often causes people to leave a particular area or country. * People often come to the United States seeking for freedom, oppurnites, and democracy. * Environmental Push and Pull Factors:
h) Many people migrate to areas with better climate, soil, and resources. * Ex: 1930’s Dust Bowl migrants left Oklahoma and many went to California in search of land to farm. * Cultural and Traditional Push and Pull Factors:
i) People who can’t survive a major political transition, Percussion so they relocate to a better location. * Ex- When British India was partitioned into a manly Hindu India so all the Muslim residents migrated across the border to the new Islamic states. * Technological Advances Push and Pull Factors:
j) Transportation and Communication the availability of which can itself encourage migration. h) Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration-
1. Most people migrate...
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