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StudyAP Human Geography Notes Bartula 4/15/09

General Geography:

US road map is not a thematic map

Every meridian is the same length and has the same beginning and end

According to environmental determinism, the physical environment causes social development

Highest density: most in numbers

Highest concentration: closest together

Cloropleth map uses shading

Five Themes of Geography:
Relative location
Absolute location
Human Characteristics
Physical Characteristics
Human-Environmental Interaction:
Humans adapt to the environment
Humans modify the environment
Humans depend on the environment
Formal (uniform)
Functional (nodal)
Vernacular (perceptual)

Customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a group of people in tradition

Where an idea originates

The spread of cultural traits from one society to another

Globalization of Culture:
Globalization due to interchanging beliefs and customs

Globalization of Economy:
Globalization due to business

Reference Maps:
Regular maps showing cities, boundaries, mountains, or roads

Thematic Maps:
Maps highlighting a particular feature or a single variable such as temperature, city, size, or acreage in potatoes (Gives extra information)

Isoline Maps:
Show lines that connect points of equal value
Isolines are on topographic maps

Choropleth Maps:
Show the level of some variable within predefined regions, such as counties, states, or countries

Dot Maps:
Use a dot to represent the occurrence of some phenomenon in order to depict variation in density in a given area

Maps that have distorted population

The amount of details or depth of a map

Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth’s surface The three main types of scales are ratio (fraction) scales, bar scales, and written scales

Small Scale:
Depicts a large area (such as the state of Arizona) but with less detail

Large Scale:
Depicts a small area (such as downtown Phoenix) with great detail

The science of making maps

The system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map The most common type is the Robinson Projection
However, maps depicting the entire world can distort shape, distance, relative size, and direction

The name given to a portion of Earth’s surface
Has to be a natural feature

The physical character of a place

The location of a place relative to other places (relative location)

An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles (longitude) The two main meridians are the Prime Meridian and the International Date Line

A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians (latitude)
Time Zones:
There are four major time zones in the United States (Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific). The time zones are based on Greenwich, England because at the time England was the most powerful country. There is a new time zone ever 15 degrees longitude. One degree longitude is 69 miles, so there is a new time zone every 1,035 miles. If you go east you go forwards in time. If you go west you go back in time.

Greenwich Mean Time:
The time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian, or zero degrees longitude.

International Date Line:
An arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.

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