* Henry the Navigator: A Portuguese prince that organized a series of expeditions along the African coast and also to the Azore islands.
* Cape of Good Hope: The southernmost tip of Africa; first circumnavigated by Portugal in search of a direct route to India
* Christopher Columbus: Italian navigator that set out on an Spanish expedition to find a route to India, but instead landed on America
* Amerigo Vespucci: Traveled to the Americas, and the New World took his name
* Ferdinand Magellan: A Spanish expedition set sail under this captain and they sailed past the southern tip of South America and made the first trip around the world. They reached the Indonesian islands and Spain took control of the Philippines.
* Dutch East India Company: Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in Asia; acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed.
* British East India Company: Same as above
* Lepanto: A Spanish-directed fleet defeated the navy of the Ottoman Empire in this battle.
* Core nations: Nations, usually European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international banking and commercial services such as shipping; exported manufactured goods for raw materials.
* Mercantilism: Economic theory that stressed governments’ promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe.
* Mestizos: People of mixed European and Indian ancestry in Mesoamerica and South America; particularly prevalent in areas colonized by Spain; often part of forced labor system.
* Vasco de Balboa: First Spanish captain to begin settlement on the mainland of Mesoamerica in 1509; initial settlement eventually led to conquest of Aztec and Inca empires by other captains.
* Francisco Pizarro: Led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535; by 1540, most of the Inca... [continues]
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