Jun 26th, 2012
AP European History Summer Assignment 2012
Why did trade and travel decline after the fall of Rome?
After the fall of Rome, with no government to supply protection or to keep the rads and bridges repaired, travel became difficult and dangerous. This danger, coupled with ignorance and lack of desire to change the situation by the powerful lords, whose manors required little trade, led to the decline in travel and trade.
Who was the first “Holy Roman Emperor” and how did he get that title?
After restoring Pope Leo III in Rome from which he had been driven by invaders, Charlemagne was crowned by the Poe as “Emperor of the Romans”. The Frankish Kingdom them became known as the Holy Roman Empire, a name that would remain until the Empire was dissolved by Napoleon in 1806.
What is the difference between the Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire?
The Holy Roman Empire was started by Charlemagne and was centered in France. It was called the Holy Roman Empire" due to the fact that the Pope crowned Charlemagne as the Emperor.
What were the connections between “The Holy Roman Empire” and “The Church”?
The Holy Roman Empire was an endeavor by the Catholic Church and Christian kings to restore in their own image the crumbled remains of the secular achievements of the ancient pagan Roman Empire.
Define feudalism and describe the characteristics of its organization.
Feudalism was also a social and economics organization based on a series of reciprocal relationships. The king in theory owned the land which he granted to lords who in return would give service, usually in the form of military aid, to the king. The receiver of the land became a vassal, and these grants of land were known as fiefs. Sometimes these fiefs were larger than a lord could administer. So he, in turn, granted use of part of the land to lesser lords who pledged their service in return. This system continued on until, at the lowest level, a knight administered only small feudal estate.
Why were strong kings rare and central government generally missing under the feudal system?
Kings under the feudal system generally had weak methods for gathering taxes and for ensuring their rule. For both, since the King's writ didn't extend directly through a country, they were often reliant on local governing mechanisms. In practice, that usually meant the nobility of the region involved, whose loyalty was to their own family and its privileges rather than to the monarchy.
What were the benefits supposedly derived from the feudal system? Who benefited the most?
Feudal manors provided both political and social organization. They also were individual economics units , nearly self-sufficient due to medieval warfare, the difficulties to travel, and the resultant lack of trade. The feudal estate featured a manor-home, usually a fortified castle surrounded by protective walls, belonging to the lord, surrounded by fields, herds and villages where serfs lived and worked.
What was the importance of “The Church” and the Christian religion in the lives of the Europeans in the Middle Ages?
Religion and the after-life became the focal point of thought and living. The influence of religion can also clearly be seen in the art, architecture, literature, and music of the time. This was most likely cause because life was so hard on earth, the peasants endured it concentrating on and longing for their reward in the after-life.
How did the ritual and sacraments of the Church establish a constant, ongoing relationship with its individual members?
The believers of the Roman Catholic Church believed the seven sacraments kept an individual constantly connected to God and the Church from birth to death. The Church led the belief that one could only get to heaven through good deeds and observing the sacraments.
How did the Church us the...