AP European History Review

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Athens “Golden Age of Athens” Achievements of:
-Golden Age of Athens took place in 5th century BC (480-430 BCE) -Golden Age took place after Peloponnesian wars (Athens verse Sparta) and before the Persian wars -Achievements: Greeks excelled in philosophy history (Herodotus and Thucydides) Drama (Sophocles and Aeschylus) Sculpture (Balance between realism and idealism) Arts Architecture (Parthenon 447-432 BCE)

Aristotle on government, ethics and epistemology:
-Aristotle was a pupil of Plato and was tutor of Alexander the great -Ethics: practice in moderation
-Theory of knowledge: true objects = nature (everything around us), use deductive and inductive reasoning, use observation and the five senses -Government:
True False
One Monarchy Tyranny
Few Aristocracy Oligarchy
Many Polity Democracy

Anabaptists:
-Protestant sect that believed in adult baptism
-Revelation, religious tolerance, pacifism
-Separation of church and state
-Were prosecuted for their beliefs

Albigencians: Heretical cult in southern France in 1209. They questioned the ethnicity of the sacraments and whether the pope was the highest authority. Pope/nobility was against heretics and in the early 13th century, there was an understanding that if there was any heresy, then there was civil disorder. The papacy or the secular authorities had no tolerance for heretical cults and the Albigencians were prosecuted. The Albigencians were precursors to the Lutheran reformation that would take place in the 1500s

Alexandrine Scholars (Hellenistic Scholars)
-Science (Achievements of Individuals)
-Aristocracy of Samos (310-230): sun is larger than earth, the sun is larger than the earth, the stars are very far away -Euclid: Elements of Geometry
-Archimedes: invented machines, wrote the book On Plane Equilibrium and came up with the displacement theory -Medicine:
Hippocrates, Herophius, Erasistratus, Philinus and Serapion were all physicians who contributed to medicine in the Hellenistic period.

Anti-Semitism (Expression in the middle ages and the early modern period) -In the middle ages, Jews were blamed for poisoning the wells and many mainly believed that this had caused the black death; many Jews (about 2000) were burned at the stake -In the Early Modern Period: Ferdinand and Isabella called for the inquisition which was supposed to ethnically cleanse non catholic/Spanish Jews Act of Supremacy: issued in 1534. This act declared the king of England the supreme head of the church of England Aquinas: (1225-12274)

-a professor at Paris (produced suma theological)
-drew a distinction between faith/reason
-investigated the branch of philosophy known as epistemology -Aquinas maintained that EVERYTHING has an explanation
-his doctrine (suma theological. see lisa’s list) still remains the roman catholic churches’ doctrine

Avignese papacy was extravagant and "the place to be" as ms fallica said.

Pope Alexander VI:
-1492-1503 was aided by Cesare Borgia in asserting political authority in the papal lands Augustine of Hippo:
-wrote the Confessions (his autobiography)
-confessions reveal the change and devilment of the mind and personality -claimed in the idea that virtue/knowledge was not the same b/c weakness of the human will. The idea associated with virtue and knowledge is that a person might know what is right but will not always do the right thing -his idea on sin: everyone had an innate tendency to sin because of the sins committed by Adam and eve and this innate tendency to sin is passed on by sexual activity -city of god was another book that was written by Augustine of hippo and this state the state is a necessary evil. This book also contrasts Christianity with secular society in which Christianity exists Benedictines; Rule of Benedict: a life of regularity, discipline, and moderation, for men only, expression of assimilation of Roman spirit into western monasticism……... Monks made a vow of stability, conversion of manners, and...
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