Ap European History Outline Chapter 10

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Mr. Dunbar
AP European History
Chapter 10 Outline: Renaissance and Discovery

Section One: The Renaissance in Italy
* Section Overview
* Jacob Burckhardt, a Swiss historian, described the Renaissance as the “prototype of the modern world” in his book Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860) * In Italy blossomed new secular and scientific views * People became to approach the world empirically and draw rational conclusions based on observation * Burckhardt saw the emergence of the modern world emerge from that of the pre-modern, or medieval, period * Some criticize Burckhardt for overlooking the continuity between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance * Scholars agree that the Renaissance (1375-1527)was a transition from medieval to modern times * Different from the feudal fragmentation of medieval times, Renaissance Europe was characterized by growing national consciousness and political centralization, an urban economy based on organized commerce and capitalism, and growing lay control of secular thought and culture * The Italian City State

* Growth of City-States
* When commerce revived in the eleventh century, Italian merchants mastered the organizational skills needed for trade: book-keeping, scouting new markets, securing new markets, and banking * During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, trade-rich cities became powerful city-states, dominating the political and economic life of the surrounding countryside * Incessant warfare between pope and emperor and the Guelf [propapal] and Ghibelline [proimperial] factions created an environment in which city-states could emerge and expand as the two major powers weakened each other * A unique urban rich emerged in Italy comprised of the local nobility and new rich * Five major city-states evolved: the duchy of Milan, the republics of Florence and Venice, the Papal States, and the Kingdom of Naples * Social Class and Conflict

* Florence as an example of social division and anarchy * Four social groups of Florence
* Grandi—the old rich, or nobles and wealthy merchants who traditionally had ruled the city * Popolo grosso (“fat people”)—the newly rich merchant class, capitalists and bankers, who began to the old rich for political powers * Middle-burgher ranks of guild masters, shop owners, and professionals, the smaller businesspeople, who tended to side with the new rich against the conservative policies of the old rich * Popolo minuto (“little people”)—the lower economic classes * Popolo Minuto (“little people”)—the lower economic classes * Paupers—in 1457, one-third the population of Florence, was officially listed as paupers, or having no wealth at all * Ciompi Revolt—a great uprising of the poor that occurred in Florence in 1378 * Three reasons that made life unbearable for the lower classes * feuding between the old rich and the new rich * social anarchy created when the Black Death cut the city’s population almost in half * the collapse of the great banking houses of Bardi and Peruzzi * the revolt established a chaotic four-year reign of power by the lower Florentine classes; stability did not return to Florence until the rise of the Medici family in 1434 * Despotism and Diplomacy

* Florence and the Medici Family
* Cosimo de’ Medici, the wealthiest Florentine and natural statesmen, controlled the Florence from behind the scenes by manipulating the constitution and manipulating elections * Signoria—a council of first six and later of eight members governed the city; these men were chosen from the most powerful guilds, mainly those representing the major clothing industries (cloth,...
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