D. English Civil War
1. Political- One of the causes was Charles’s I unsuccessful attempt to arrest five members of Parliament, known as the Grand Remonstrance, on January 4, 1642. Another cause was who should have the power in the country and inflation forced up prices in all parts of Europe. An effect would be that England became a Commonwealth and a Protectorate. Parliamentary supremacy was another effect. 2. Religious-One of the causes was that the Puritans, sought to do away with bishops and revise the Prayer book; Charles fought against them. The main cause was over religion in which the puritans accused Charles and Laud of leaning towards Roman Catholicism. Effects are the protestant church established and religious toleration.
E. Glorious Revolution
1. Social- The Glorious Revolution changed England socially because Mary and William allow the people to have a say in politics and religious toleration with the Toleration Act. 2. Political- It changed England by having William and Mary sign the Bill of Rights. This made England a Constitutional Monarchy. A constitutional monarchy acknowledges the monarch as the official head of state but the real power is in the hands of the parliament.
F. 1. Stuarts
The House of Stuart is a European royal house. It was founded by Robert II of Scotland, and the Stewarts first became monarchs of the Kingdom of Scotland during the late 14th century, and subsequently held the position of the Kings of Great Britain and Ireland. Their patrilineal ancestors had held the title High Steward of Scotland since the 12th century, after arriving by way of Norman England. The dynasty inherited further territory by the 17th century which covered the entire British Isles, including the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Ireland, also upholding a claim to the Kingdom of France. The significance of the Stuarts is that they were the first kings of the United Kingdom and that they brought disaster to England. 2. Whigs
The Whigs were a party in the Parliament of England, Parliament of Great Britain, and Parliament of the United Kingdom, who contested power with the rival Tories from the 1680s to the 1850s. The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute rule. Both parties began as loose groupings or tendencies, but became quite formal by 1784, with the ascension of Charles James Fox as the leader of a reconstituted "Whig" party ranged against the governing party of the new "Tories" under William Pitt the Younger. Both parties were founded on rich politicians, more than on popular votes; there were elections to the House of Commons, but a small number of men controlled most of the voters. The significance of the Whigs is that the Whigs political program came to encompass not only the supremacy of parliament over the monarch and support for free trade, but Catholic emancipation, the abolition of slavery and expansion of the franchise. 3. Tories
In the 17th century it had become a term applied to monarchists in the House of Commons. By the 18th century the Tories were politicians who favored royal authority, the established church and who sought to preserve the traditional political structure and opposed parliamentary reform. After 1834 this political group in the House of Commons preferred to use the term Conservative. The significance of the Tories was that they emerged to uphold the legitimist rights of James, Duke of York to succeed his brother Charles II to the British throne.
G. 1. Politique is a term that was used during the sixteenth and seventeenth century Wars of Religion, to describe moderates of both religious faiths (Huguenots and Catholics) who held that only the restoration of a strong monarchy could save France from total collapse. It frequently included a pejorative connotation of moral or religious indifference. The term gained great currency after 1568 with the appearance of radical Catholic Leagues calling for the...