1.How would you describe Northern Christian Humanists?
-Major goal was the reform of Christianity –cultivated a knowledge of the classics – focused on the sources of early Christianity, the Holy Scriptures and the writings of such church fathers as Augustine, Ambrose, and Jerome. – most important characteristic was its reform program – they felt that through education in the sources of classical, & especially Christian, antiquity, they could instill a true inner piety that would bring about a reform of the church and society. – supported schools by bring new editions of classics, bible etc – belief in the power of education would stay with the society.
2.What author/thinker describes his work as a utopian society? -Thomas More ( 1478- 1535 ), proficient in both Latin and Greek, Lord Chancellor of England, intimate friend of Erasmus, wrote poetry in Latin – Most famous work and one of most controversial, Utopia is an imaginary island, reflects More’s concerns with society, presented a new social system, every1 works 9 hours a day no matter what they do, rewarded according to needs, and fame as the proper motivating agents for society. Everyone was free to do wholesome and enriching things.- things will never be perfect until human beings are perfect. 3.?Why did Northern European humanists study and learn Greek? -Because of the idea of humanism, it influenced their society to study Greek because they studied the classical texts which were mostly in Greek/Latin. (Humanism was a cultural movement that promoted the study of the humanities—the languages, literature, and history of ancient Greece and Rome. ) 4.Who was the Reformer that laid the egg that Luther hatched? -Erasmus, the most influential of all the Christian humanists ( 1466-1536 ), born in Holland, educated @ schools of the Brothers of the Common Life. -The handbook of the Christian knight (1503), his conception of religion= “the philosophy of Christ”. – Christianity should be guiding for the direction of philosophy not so stressed. – De-emphasized the external forms of religion- 1516 edited new testament and translated into Greek. – “The Praise of the Folly” humorous yet effective criticism of the most corrupt practices of his society, - he did lay the egg for Luther but eventually disapproved of Luther & reformers. – *reform within the church* 5.Popular religion in late middle ages and renaissance was marked by what? - efforts to do away with traditional beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church 6.How would you characterize the early life of Martin Luther? -Unable to achieve personal salvation, in obsession of his own sins and the question of sacraments. 7.What religious organization included both clergy and laymen? -Calvinism
8.What religious reformer was burnt at the stake?
9.The question how can I be saved was answered through good works by what? -To Luther, faith only, to the Catholic Church, good works and faith 10.What event led to the break with M.L from the church?
-The sale of indulgences by other priests and monks.
11.What was the purpose of Babylonian continuity of Church? - it attacked the sacramental system of the church
12.What was the edict of worms?
-called Luther to recant the heretical doctrines he had espoused 13.How were Luther’s Ideas spread?
-preachers presented Luther’s teachings to city after city, printing press, woodcuts presenting the pope badly, attacking the papal greed, 14.Peasant’s war
-greatest challenge for Luther, they wanted to return to good old days, peasants looked to Luther for guidance. Thomas Munzter, inflamed peasants against rules, erupted in June 1524.- Luther told German princes to kill all the peasants they wanted, he knew their support was most important. 15.How did M.L view the Sacraments of the Catholic Church?
-he only kept two of the 7 sacraments, baptism and the Lord’s supper, he denied transubstantiation, ( bread= flesh, wine=blood ), he...