A. What did...
1. Greeks - idea of philosophy: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle; gov't style: democracy; literature: Homer's Illiad, The Oddessy; history was recorded by Herodotus
2. Romans - gov't style: Roman republic, language: French, Italian, Spanish, etc based on Latin; law: impartial justice, trial by jury; building: aqueducts, roads
3. Christianity - alliance and loyalty to Church, promoted Christian unity, served as example of holy time, improved cultivation techniques, stressed productive work
4. Feudalism - a style of reciprocal economic + political obligations b/w landlords + peasants, creation of serfdom: burdens, although not slaves
5. Babylonian Captivity: split within the Catholic Church, ended with Council of Constance; Urban VI: Italian pope living in Rome; Clement VII: French pope living in Avignon
6. Conciliar Movement: a reform movement that held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Christians, not pope; Clericos Laicos and Unan Sanctam
7. John Wycliffe and Jan Hus; Hus (Hussites) - burned at stakes for heresy against doctrines of Catholic Church; Wycliffe (Lollards) - Bible is the only source of Christian doctrine, translated Bible into English, rejected hierarchy and Eucharist
8. Secularism: the principle of separation b/w gov't and state - ppl became less interested in religion, want instant gratification and material things than spiritual fulfillment
9. Humanism: the secular movement which promoted intellectual development as a human - founded by Petrarch + Boccaccio - based on Greco-Roman ideas (back to original sources)
10. Italian Ren: "rebirth" of art in Italy; interest of classical civilization of ancient Greeks and Romans in literature, thought, art, architecture
11. Northern Ren: Ren in N Euro; infused with more Christian spirit; France: King Francis I commissioned da... [continues]
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