P.1 Neuman AP Euro
Ch.9/10 Review Questions
Kagan Western Heritage 8th edition Chapter 9 (1300-1527)
1. What were the underlying and precipitating causes of the Hundred Years’ War? What advantages did each side have? Why were the French able to drive the English almost entirely out of France?
The first underlying and precipitating cause of the Hundred Years’ War was that England and France were too closely proximate emergent territorial powers. Another cause of the Hundred Years’ War was that Edward III of England was a vassal of Philip the Fair of France, and therefore held several sizeable French territories as fiefs. Also one of the underlying and precipitating causes of the Hundred Years’ was the quarrel between the French and the English for the fief of Flanders. The advantages of the English were;
* France’s struggle to become a centralized “modern state” from a fragmented feudal society. * France borrowing from Italian bankers in order the fund the war, which created many internal conflicts. * Military superiority over the French
* Frances’s mediocre royal leadership
The advantages of the French were;
* Three times the population of the English
* France was wealthier then England
* The French also fought on their soil.
The French were able to drive the English almost entirely out of France because of the Peace of Bretigny. 2. What were the causes of the Black Death, and why did it spread so quickly throughout Western Europe? Where was it most virulent? What were its effects on European society? How important do you think disease is in changing the course of history?
The causes of the Black Death were the decades of overpopulation, economic depression, famine, and bad health that Europe suffered. The reason it spread so quickly is because no one’s immune systems were prepared for a plague. And everyone was filthy because everyone bathed once a year. So if one trader got it from Verona, and came back to Paris, then it wasn’t long before the whole city was infected. The Black Death was most virulent in densely populated areas like the Netherlands. The Black Death created an importance of skilled artisan and reduced the economic power of the landed nobility. I think disease is very important to changing the course of history.
3. Discuss the struggle between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip the Fair. Why was Boniface so impotent on the conflict? How had political conditions changed since the reign of Pope Innocent III in the late twelfth century, and what did that mean for the papacy?
Boniface was so impotent because it was an assault on traditional clerical rights. Political conditions changed because the French had started taxing the clergy. That meant that the clergy wouldn’t have enough money to function.
4. Briefly trace the history of the church from 1200 to 1450. How did it respond to the political power of the monarchs? How great an influence did the church have on secular events?
In ever endeavor by the royalty to instate the monarchy as the superpower; the palpate has done everything in their power to peacefully keep society’s faith in the clergy and the church. The church had much influence in secular events.
5. What was the Avignon papacy, and why did it occur? What effect did it have on the state of the papacy? What relation does it have to the Great Schism? How did the church become divided and how was it reunited? Why was the conciliar movement a setback for the papacy?
The Avignon papacy was the new innovated papacy, it occurred from Clement V’s challenge to the papacy’s agility both politically and economically. It expanded papal taxes and the practice of collecting annates. The great schism ended the Avignon papacy. The church was divided by the lollards and the hussites dispute and reformed by the great schism. Because they now had two popes who constantly argued about what was best for the church.
6. Why the...