Chapter 19 Outline Questions
1. How did the open field system work? Why was much of the land left uncultivated while the people sometimes starved? System that divided land to be cultivated by peasants of a village into several large fields, which were in turn cut up into narrow strips, individual or peasant family held scattered strips, farmed each field as a community. Common lands were set aside for herd and natural pasture. Eastern European peasants worked some days without pay.
2. What changes brought an end to the open field system?
The open-field system was brought to end for economic reasons, and because it was not efficient. It was ended by "enclosing" fields.
3. Where did the modern agricultural revolution begin? Why?
Gradual transformation of the traditional agricultural system that began in Britain in the 18th century. Aspects of this complex transformation, which was not completed until the 19th century, included the reallocation of land ownership to make farms more compact and an increased investment in technical improvements, such as new machinery, better drainage, scientific methods of breeding, and experimentation with new crops and systems of crop rotation.
4. What is meant by enclosure? Was this movement a great swindle of the poor by the rich, as some have claimed? Enclosure meant to give every person their own land to be enclosed. Not a swindle because it gave peasants to own land.
5. Was the dramatic growth of population in the 18th century due to a decreasing death rate or an increasing birthrate? Explain. Population rose because of decreasing death rate. Humans became better at safeguarding and protecting against famine (better roads and canals allowed emergency foods to be brought in, more gentleman-like warfare *less destructive)
6. How did the putting out system work?
The putting-out system was the production of goods in private homes under the supervision of a merchant who "put out" the raw materials, paid a...
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