AP BIOLOGY EXAM ESSAY (FREE RESPONSE) QUESTIONS
Answers must be in essay form. Labeled diagrams may be used to supplement discussion, but in no case will a diagram alone suffice. It is important that you read each question completely, and answer each section of the question. When giving examples, the first ones you give will be the ones graded. (if two examples are asked for, and you write about 4, make sure the first two are the best ones; they are the only ones counted!)
UNIT 1 BIOCHEMISTRY, WATER, ENZYMES
The unique properties of water make life possible on earth. Select three properties of water and a. for each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms of the physical/chemical nature of water. b. for each property, describe one example of how the property affects the functioning of living organisms.
Enzymes are biological catalysts.
a. Relate the chemical structure of an enzyme to its specificity and catalytic activity.
b. Design a quantitative experiment to investigate the influence of pH OR temperature on the activity of the enzyme.
c. Describe what information concerning the structure of an enzyme could be inferred from your experiment.
Proteins – large complex molecules – are major building blocks of all living organisms . Discuss the following in relation to proteins.
a. the chemical composition and levels of structure of proteins.
b. the roles of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis.
c. the roles of proteins in membrane structure and transport of molecules across the membrane.
Water is important for all living organisms. The functions of water are directly related to its physical properties.
a. Describe how the properties of water contribute to TWO of the following:
- thermoregulation in endotherms
- plasma membrane structure
b. water serves as a reactant and a product in the carbon cycle. Discuss the role of water in the carbon cycle.
c. Discuss the impact of one human activity on the water cycle.
Yeast cells are placed in an apparatus with a solution of sugar ( a major nutrient for yeast metabolism). The apparatus detects bubbles of gas released by the yeast cells. The rate of respiration varies with the surrounding temperatures as indicated by the data below.
Temp (C )
Number of bubbles of gas produced per minute
a. Graph the results on the axes provided. Determine the optimum temperature for respiration in the yeast. b. Respiration is a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions . Using your knowledge of enzymes and the data above, analyze and explain the results of the experiment. c. Design an experiment to test the effect of varying the pH of the sugar solution on the rate of respiration. Include a prediction of the expected results.
#5 B (also genetics)
UNIT 2 CELLS, TRANSPORT, KINGDOMS
Cells transport substances across their membranes. Choose THREE of the following four types of cellular transport.
For each of the three types of transport you choose,
a. describe the transport process and explain how the organization of cell membranes functions in the movement of specific molecules across membranes, and
b. explain the significance of each type of transport to a specific cell (you may use different cell types as examples)
Organisms differ from one another and yet share common characteristics.
a. Select two kingdoms and briefly describe three characteristics used to distinguish between members of one kingdom and members of the other.
b. Describe 3 characteristics (at least one cellular and one molecular) that members of these two kingdoms share.
c. Propose an explanation for...
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