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AP Biology Essay #7 concerning Evolution, created using the gradi...

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AP Biology Essay #7 concerning Evolution, created using the grading rubric, so will be an A+

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discuss the evolutionary relationships between the two members of each pair you have chosen. In your discussion

include structural adaptations and their functional significance.

a. Green Algae...Vascular Plants

b. Prokaryotes....Eukaryotes


Green Algae and Vascular Plants have clear evolutionary relationships. Both Green algae and vascular plants have many similarities displaying this fact. Just a few of these similarities include that both groups have chloroplasts with chlorophyll b and beta-carotene (for getting food), chloroplasts of similar structure, chemically similar cellulose in cell wall, similar peroxismes (which contain enzymes), alike Mitosis and cytokinesis processes (reproduction), similar sperm ultrastructure, and similar rRNA structure (shows similarity at a genetic level).

These two structures do of course differ, because the vascular plants are much further evolved than the Algae. A few of these likely acquired traits are Xylem, and Phloem, which transport both water and food throughout the plant much like the veins in our body transport oxygen through veins and arteries, though Xylem unlike Phloem use passive transport to accomplish this. The cuticle, or waxy covering of the vascular plants, allowing them to survive perhaps better, especially when supplied with less water, helps prevent evaporation of water from the vascular plants, allowing them to grow easily away from shallow water, which much of the algae depend on. There are many other evolved traits which the vascular plants possess as well.

Though there are differences, clearly Green Algae has an evolutionary relationship to Green Algae. The multiple structural similarities, and advancements of the vascular plants clearly show Vascular plants have a somewhat close evolutionary relationship with Greene Algae.


Prokaryotes, and Eukaryotes also share evolutionary relationships. Basic similarities between these organisms include, having nucleic acids (genetic...