Ap Biology Ecology Project

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Ecology Assignment: Emily Toney
AP Biology (Ernst)

1. Fill in the ecological hierarchy chart below. Different levels of ecological study (1149)

Ecological Level| Description| Example|
Organismal|  Organismal ecology includes the subdisciplines of psychological, evolutionary, and behavioral ecology, is concerned with how an organisms structure, physiology and (for animals) behavior meet the challenges posed by its environment. |  How do hammerhead sharks select a mate? | Population| A population is a group of individuals of the same species lining in an area. Population ecology analyses factors that affect population size and how and why it changes through time. |  What environmental factors affect the reproduction rate of deer mice? | Community| A community is a group of populations of different species in an area. Community ecology examines how the interactions between species, such as predator and competition, affect community structure and organization | What factors influence the diversity of species that make up a forest| Ecosystem| An ecosystem in the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which those organisms interact. Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and the environment.|  What factors affect photosynthetic productivity in a temperate grassland environment? | Landscape| A landscape (or seascape) is a mosaic of connected ecosystems. Research in landscape ecology focuses on factors controlling exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multipul ecosystems.| To what extent do the trees lining a river serve as corridors of dispersal for animals?| Global| The biosphere is the global ecosystem – the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems and landscapes. Global ecology examines how the regional exchange of energy and materials influences the functioning and distribution of organisms across the biosphere. |  How does ocean circulation affect the global distribution of organisms across the biosphere?|

2. Explain the difference between biotic and abiotic factors that affect an organisms ability to inhabit a particular environment. (1151)

Term| Definition| 2 Examples|
Biotic Factor|  Pertaining to the living organisms in the environment | Kangaroos & pineapple plants| Abiotic Factor|  Nonliving; referring to the physical and chemical properties of an environment.|  Water and nutrients|

3. Choose 3 abiotic factors and explain how they limit species distribution within an ecosystem. (1154)

Abiotic Factor| Description|
Temperature| It would limit distribution of a species within an ecosystem because in temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius the water inside of the cells in the organism will freeze and most organisms proteins will denature at temperatures about 45 degrees Celsius unless extreme adaptions have occurred in a species allowing it to survive in extreme temperatures. | Sunlight| Sunlight would limit species distributing in within an ecosystem because most photosynthetic organisms absorb sunlight, which is the foundation of most ecosystems. | Water| Most every living organism on this planet is dependent on water, some more than others. If an area has very little water then only the organisms that can survive with very little water can successfully live and reproduce there. There is also the problem with too much water. Only plant cells can survive completely submerged in water for long periods of time because they have a cell wall that allows them to remain turgid. Animal cells don’t have a cell wall and if they were to remain submerged in water they would eventually explode from too much water entering the cell if they don’t have another way of protecting the cells from the water intake |

4. Explain how bodies of water and mountain ranges affect regional climate. (1155 & 1158) When speaking of oceans, the currents in the oceans influence the climate...
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