Ap Bio Ch 20-21 Study Guide

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1.Recombinant DNA is a form of artificial DNA that is created by combining two or more sequences that would not normally occur together. (thank you ronfled:)

2) A vector is a DNA molecule that carries foreign DNA into the cell and replicates. Foreign DNA is introduced to the cell by recombinant DNA. Restriction enzymes are required for this action.

3) Restriction enzymes cut up DNA strands. In bacteria, they attack bacteriophage DNA when it enters the cell. 4. This is important in that the DNa molecule must be cut in a reproducible way where two fragments cut by the same restriction enzyme with be complement to eachother and their sticky ends will bond together. 5)plasmids are circular DNA particles within a micro organism that is not part of the main DNA of the cell. it carries many information that allows adaptation of the cell to particular environments. 6. Plasmids and bacteriophages both use a host cell to reproduce their DNA. Also, it would reproduce and make more bateria cells or viruses when within the host cell. ? 7. the genome is the complete complement of an organisms genes. a genomic library is a set of thousands of DNA segments from a genome. 8. cDNA is complementary DNA and is made by reverse transcriptase. the changes in patterns of genes for mammalians for gene expression can be traced by cDNA. 9 probes are DNA that contains the gene of interest and their function is to transform the bacteria DNA? not really sure about this one. 10. The PCR is a three-step cycle that produces an exponentially growing population of identical DNA molecules. Cycle 1 yields 2 molecules by 3 parts. Denaturation, which heats briefly to separate DNA strands. Annealing, which cools to allow primers to form hydrogen bonds with ends of a target sequence. And Extension, which DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the 3' end of each primer. In cycle 2, it yields 8 molecules and in cycle 3, it yields 8 molecules;2 molecules match target sequence. The purpose of PCR is...
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