Anxiety, Mood/Affective, Dissociative/Somatoform Disorders

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Anxiety, Mood/Affective, Dissociative/Somatoform
Personality disorders stem from mental health issues and derive from abnormal psychology, commonly referred to as, psychopathology. Feelings, thoughts and behaviors expressed by those suffering from a personality disorder are usually exaggerated feelings, thoughts and behaviors expressed by all human beings (Millon & Davis, 1996). The problem arises when these thoughts, feelings and behaviors become severe maladaptive patterns that transcend into chronic conditions that cause disturbances that do not allow a human to function or relate well within society. Moreover, these disruptive patterns cause serious detriments to relationships and other areas of life (Millon & Davis, 1996). Once thought to be a cause of mysticism and the spirit world-personality disorders and mental health issues are now known to derive from a variety of elements, which include biological, cognitive and environmental factors (Millon & Davis, 1996). This paper will discuss the biological, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components of anxiety, mood/affective and dissociative/somatoform personality disorders. Biological Components

Anxiety
Anxiety is a normal reaction to a stressor; however, extreme anxiety that does not go away, even without the presence of a stressor can lead to an anxiety disorder. Biologically, anxiety can be attributed to genetics, the autonomic nervous system, and the limbic system (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Studies have concluded a correlation between genetics and the development of anxiety. None the less, genetics affect different anxiety disorders in dissimilar ways; some more than others and in some cases can be based on gender. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, for example, shows genetic correlation in men only (Carlson, 2007). The limbic and autonomic nervous systems contribute to anxiety by the onset of physiological symptoms, such as rapid heartbeat, dilated pupils, and fast breathing and the flight or fight response (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Mood/Affective

In regards to mood/affective disorders, biology plays a role in the following areas: hormones, neurochemicals and genetics (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Mood affective disorders abnormally affect one’s general mood and can develop into chronic mood disorders, such as depression or mania. Depression is linked to hereditary factors through the 5-HTT gene, also known as the mood gene (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Moreover, individuals can become predisposed to depression due to affected brain structures associated with mood regulation. An imbalance of neurochemicals, such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin, is also associated with mood disorders. Hormones play a role insofar high levels of cortisal in one’s blood in linked to depression (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Dissociative/Somatoform

Dissociative disorders involve a breakdown of the normal integration of personality, whereas, in somatoform disorders, psychological problems take physiological forms. Biological components of these disorders involve the use of drugs that can cause chemical changes within the brain, which can result in the onset of these disorders. Moreover, the mental disorder schizophrenia also indicates biological components related to brain function and structure abnormalities, including neuropsychological and neurophysiologic disturbances (Carlson, 2007).

Emotional Components
Anxiety
The emotional component of anxiety disorders involves feelings associated with anxiety such as fear, dread, and panic (Carlson, 2007).Placing individuals in situations that make them feel general anxiousness cause certain feelings that may lead to an anxiety disorder. Furthermore, the emotional component of anxiety works together with other factors to contribute to the development of different disorders within the realm of anxiety (Carlson, 2007). Mood/Affective

Similar to anxiety disorders, the emotional components of...
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