Antisocial personality disorder
University of Phoenix
Antisocial personality disorder is a mental health condition in which a person has a long-term pattern of manipulating, exploiting, or violating the rights of others. This behavior is often criminal. Habitual rule breaking and chronic disregard for sociolegal restraints are behavioral characteristics attributed to individuals who are labeled antisocial personality. Authors of the DSM-V deemphasized underlying traits and negative intentions and enumerated specific types of behavior seen as definitive of antisocial personality disorder. Diagnosis of pathologically nonconforming individuals was predicated firmly on documentation of a history of continuous and chronic antisocial involvements. Not too many years ago, however, primary attention had been given to cataloguing unwholesome personality traits to describe individuals who are labeled sociopath and psychopath. It was assumed that socially deviant behaviors were energized by such personality substrates as selfishness, impulsivity, and callousness. Historically, these notions replaced even more uncomplimentary terms which described antisocial persons as “morally deranged”, “psychopathically inferior”, and “morally insane”. Even today, to observe a constellation of antisocial characteristics may be tantamount to inferring the presence of negative personality traits or person deficits. DSM-IV-TR
The APA's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV-TR), defines antisocial personality disorder (in Axis II Cluster B): A) There is a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years, as indicated by three or more of the following: Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest; deception, as indicated by repeatedly lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure; impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults; reckless disregard for safety of self or others;
consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations; lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another B) The individual is at least age 18 years.
C) There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before age 15 years. D) The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or a manic episode (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). ASPD falls under the dramatic/erratic cluster of personality disorders (Wegner & co, 2010). In the DSM-5, the diagnosis antisocial personality disorder is kept, but it is no longer on another axis as the other mental disorders (APA, 2013). Personality disorders seem to be caused by a combination of these genetic and environmental influences. Genetically, it is the temperament and the kind of personality a person is born with, and environmentally, it is the way in which a person grows up and the experiences they have had (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2013). Environmental influences
Social and home environment are shown to contribute to the development of antisocial behavior. The parents of delinquent children are frequently proven to be alcoholics or criminals themselves, and the homes were often disrupted by divorce, separation, or the absence of one parent. In the case of foster care and adoption, depriving a young child of a significant emotional bond is theorized to possibly damage their ability to form intimate and trusting relationships. This may explain why adopted children are more prone to develop ASPD. As young children, they may be more likely to move from caregiver to caregiver before a final...
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