Antimicrobial Properties of Soil Used in the Treatment of Bacterial Diarrhoea

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ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOIL USED IN THE TREATMENT OF BACTERIAL DIARRHOEABYSITUMBEKO LIWELEYA(s213459531)Research Proposal Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of BTECHBIOMEDICAL TECHNOLOGY| |

FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES|
atNelson Mandela Metropolitan University |
MODULE- RESEARCH METHODOLOGYDUE DATE- 16th MAY, 2013.SUPERVISOR- PROFESSOR N. SMITH| |

Contents
ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL USED IN THE TREATMENT OF BACTERIAL DIARRHOEA3
ABSTRACT3
LITERATURE REVIEW3
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY4
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY4
METHOD(S)4
Wet preparation microscopy4
Gram stain4
Culturing4
MATERIALS TO BE USED5
Microorganisms known to cause diarrhoea5
Other material5
Wet preparation microscopy5
Gram stain6
Culture6
Biochemical tests6
Glass ware7
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS7
SAMPLING COLLECTION7
SAMPLE ANALYSIS METHODS8
EVALUATION OF RESULTS8
DISSEMINATION OF RESEARCH RESULTS9
WORK AND TIME SCHEDULE9
FINANCE BUDGET9
Other requirements9
Wet preparation microscopy9
Gram stain10
Culture10
Biochemical tests10
CONCLUSION11
REFERENCE LIST12

ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL USED IN THE TREATMENT OF BACTERIAL DIARRHOEA ABSTRACT
Bacilli class of domain bacteria, mostly found in soil form a tough protective endospore, allowing these organisms to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. The crude metabolite extracted from Bacilli class of soil microorganisms, particularly B. methylotrophicus-SCS2012 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Streptococcus agalactae, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei and Shigella dysenteriae with the zone of inhibition range 28.33 to 32.16 mm at 100μg/disc. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against Streptococcus agalactae, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei and Shigella dysenteriae was found to be 156, 156, 312, 312 and 625μg/ml respectively. Sharma (2013)

Key words: soil extracts, antimicrobial activity, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella spp and Bacilli class. LITERATURE REVIEW
Acute infective diarrhoea and gastroenteritis are major causes of ill health and death in developing countries. Loss of electrolytes may lead to severe dehydration which if untreated can be rapidly fatal in young children especially those that are malnourished, hypoglycaemic and generally in poor health. Invasive organisms such as shigellae, campylobacter’s and E. histolytica are associated with dysentery. Toxigenic organisms such as rotaviruses, V. Cholera, and enterotoxigenic E. coli, cause secretory diarrhoea. Secretory diarrhoea is highly invasive with higher documented fatal cases. Some pathogens are both invasive and toxic-producing. Cheesbrough (2000, p.97)

Diarrhoea caused Shigella species is estimated by WHO to cause 50% of dysentery cases. S. dysenteria serotype 1 is particularly virulent, causing endemic and epidemic dysentery with high death rate. Salmonella organisms are endemic in many tropical and developing countries, while other salmonellas cause food poisoning and bacteraemia. It is highly infectious and resistance to common available antimicrobials is an increasing problem. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial medicine to which it was previously sensitive. Resistant organisms such as bacteria are able to withstand attack by antimicrobial medicines, such as antibiotics. Infections caused by resistant microorganisms often fail to respond to conventional treatment, resulting in prolonged illness and greater risk of death.

World Health Organisation (2012) discusses the problem of antimicrobial resistance Synthesis of medicinally important compounds is very difficult and thus the cost of medicine is also high because of the non availability of source materials especially aromatic compounds Gopalakrishnan (2011)

AIM
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