Antifungal Activity of Fractionated Extracts of Indigofera Tinctoria Against Aspergillus Niger

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  • Topic: Fungus, Solvent, Secondary metabolite
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  • Published : April 16, 2013
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Antifungal Activity of Fractionated Extracts of Indigo (Indigofera tinctoria) Leaves Against Aspergillus niger

A Research Paper Presented to
The Faculty of
Philippine Science High School Western Visayas
Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements in
SCIENCE RESEARCH 2

by

Christian Deo T. Deguit
Fourth Year Tau

February 2010

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study
In the past decades, a worldwide increase in the incidence of fungal infections has been observed as well as a rise in the resistance of some species of fungus to different fungicides used in medicinal practice (Abad and others, 2007). In 1955, it was reported on the incidence of fungous diseases in the Philippines based on data cooperatively compiled by the Philippine Dermatological Society from the public dispensaries of four major hospitals in Manila. Mycotic infections accounted for 13.94% of all skin diseases seen during 1952 to 1954 (Simuangco, 1962). Fungi are responsible for many serious plant diseases, including epidemic diseases that spread rapidly. The infections may cause stunting of plant structures or the entire plant; they may cause growths like warts; or they may kill the plant. Some fungi cause disease in animals and cause superficial infections in which the fungi infect deep tissues and internal organs and may spread through many regions of the body (Solomon and others, 1993). Methods of fungal control used today include traditional practices such as crop rotation, eradication and quarantine, together with the use of either chemical fungicides or biological control agents. Safety towards humans and the environment as well as the development of resistance are some of the major concerns with the use of chemical fungicides. These chemical fungicides may be too toxic to humans and may cause poisoning. Due to these increasing concerns, the search for new and safe methods for efficient fungal control has turned toward the use of natural products and biological control methods (Egan, 2001) Plants are recognized for their ability to produce a wealth of phytochemicals. Humankind has for centuries used many species to treat several diseases (Cragg and others, 1999 cited in Maaridas, 2008). Natural products, either as pure compounds or as standardised plant extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the matchedless availability of chemical diversity. The crude extract of indigo leaves may also have antifungal activity, seeing that it has isatin is one of its primary components. Isatin was reported to have antifungal activity. Illman and others (1994) found out that Isatin inhibited the growth rate of the brown-rot fungi Postia placenta at concentrations of 0.1 to 4 mM. Another study that studied on isatin’s antifungal activity was by Gil-Turnes and others (1989) the researchers discovered that shrimp embryos covered by a bacterium, Alteromonas sp. that produces the broad-spectrum antifungal compound isatin. This compound protects the embryos from the pathogenic fungus Lagenidium callinectes. This relationship represents an associational defense acquired by the shrimp via its symbiosis. (Kubanek, 2003) But, it has to be considered that the whole extract of the plant will be used. Expecting that the cause for fungal inhibition is the presence of isatin only in the extract makes the results unsettled. It is because the crude extracts could contain not just isatin but also a mixture of different metabolites and chemicals. These include essential oils, terpenoids, saponins, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, peptides and proteins (Abad and others, 2007). Some of these extra compounds could make the extract less efficient in inhibiting fungal growth. The extract should have less varied compounds so that the bioactive antifungal compounds will be more adept in hindering fungal growth Isolating isatin or at...
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