Antibacterial Properties of Bivalve Clams vs Crustaceans

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Investigating which marine animal
has the highest level of chitosan
through their anti-bacterial
properties.

SMTP Research Paper

Hwa Chong Institution (High School)

Mentor: Mr. Chew Tyng Yong

Abstract
Mollusks and Crustaceans can be found vastly around the world. Arthropods have 1,170,000 described species, and account for over 80% of all known living animal species and Mollusca being the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms. With such diversity of these marine animals, the answer to many diseases are waiting to be discovered through the discovery of new bioactive compounds in them such as Chitin. It is proven that Chitin has antibacterial properties and can be found in many species such as ciliates, amoebae, crustaceans and mollusks. Today, there is a demand for biodiversity in the screening programs seeking medications from natural products, resulting in huge interest being shown towards marine organisms. Therefore, our project aims to come up with results so as to cater to this demand by researching on the antibacterial properties of mollusks and crustaceans. This is done by first blending the shells of lala clams, blood cockles, mussels, prawns, crayfish and flower crab. They will then be immersed in diluted sodium hydroxide at 85 celcius. Next, the shells are then washed with di-ionized water and demineralized to remove calcium carbonate by treating them in diluted hydrochloric acid at room temperature. In the 2nd phase, chitin will then be dissolved in less than 40% of Sodium Hydroxide, and heated to 90celcius which will convert the Chitin into Chitosan upon dissolving. The third phase will take place over 3 days. The nutrient broth and nutrient agar will be prepared first. On the 2nd day, the bacteria broth will be prepared prior to an overnight culture on the same day using E-Coli and M.Luteus. On the 3rd day, the Anti-bacterial well diffusion test will be carried out. Finally, we will conclude by measuring which shell has the largest zones of inhibition.

Introduction
Rationale of our project

Mollusks and crustaceans can be found vastly, in various places around the world. Arthropods, the family which crustaceans belongs to, have 1,170,000 described species, and account for over 80% of all known living animal species. Mollusca is the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms. With the vast diversity of these marine animals in the world, the answer to many diseases are waiting to be discovered through the discovery of new bioactive compounds in mollusks and crustaceans such as Chitin. It is proven that Chitin has antibacterial properties and can be found in many species such as ciliates, amoebae, yeasts, fungi, crustaceans and mollusks. Chitosan, the completely or partially decaetylated Chitin, can be dissolved in acetic acid and other organic solutions. Chung et al (2004).

Today, there is an increasing want for biodiversity in the screening programs seeking medications from natural products, resulting in a huge interest being shown towards marine organism. Therefore, by researching on the antibacterial properties of mollusks and crustaceans, we may be able to come up with results so as to cater to the increasing demand.

Objective of our project

To find out which of the marine animals’ shell has the highest level of chitosan through their anti-bacterial properties

Hypothesis

Prawns have the highest anti-bacterial properties along with the highest level of chitosan. This is because it has been proven that prawns have a high level of chitosan by many research papers while the other organisms’ chitosan level is still unknown.

Literature Review

Today, there is an increasing want for biodiversity in the screening programs seeking medications from natural products, resulting in a huge interest being shown towards marine organism. This can be supported by an abundant...
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