Anti-Cancer Drug Screening in Vitro

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Anti-cancer Drug Screening in Vitro

Introduction:
The incidences of cancer remain high despite advances in our understanding of cancer. Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out of control cell growth. Normal cells are constantly subject to signals that control whether the cell should divide, differentiate into another cell or die. Cancer cells develop a degree of independence from these signals, which results in uncontrolled growth and proliferation. If this proliferation is allowed to continue and spread, it can be fatal (1). Almost 90% of cancer-related deaths are due to metastasis – the complex process of tumor spread through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. The emergence of genomic technologies holds therapeutic potential for personalized cancer management. Personalized cancer management combines standard chemotherapy and radiation treatments with genomic profiling and in vitro cell proliferation studies. Individualized genomic profiling allows the researcher to identify specific genes that contribute to unregulated cellular mechanisms that normally control cellular growth. By determining the molecular profile of a specific cancer, suitable treatment can be considered that target those gene products (2). Cultured cancer cells have the capacity to dramatically exceed normal doubling times to almost indefinite levels, unlike normal cells. HeLa cells are a great example of this. One of the most widely used continuous cell lines in research is the HeLa cell line, which was derived in 1951 from Henrietta Lacks, a cervical caner patient in 1951. These cells continue to grow and proliferate in hundreds of laboratories across the world to this day. These cancer cells have been called ‘Immortal’ as they have bypassed the senescence regulators within the cell and acquired the capacity for unlimited division. Measurement of cell viability and proliferation forms the basis for numerous in vitro assays of a cell population’s response to external factors. The reduction of tetrazolium salts is now widely accepted as a reliable way to examine cell proliferation. MTT viability assays is based on the ability of a mitochondrial dehydrogenase enzyme from viable cells to cleave the tetrazolium rings of the pale yellow MTT and form a dark blue formazan crystals, which is largely impermeable to cell membranes, thus resulting in its accumulation within healthy cells. The resulting intracellular purple formazan can be solubilized and quantified by a spectrometer and is then subject to examination to evaluate cell viability. These measurements can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain treatments to cells. These anti-cancer drugs in vitro allows drugs to be tested against live cells which helps determine drug effectiveness and side effects. Cell proliferation, also known as cell growth, cell division, or cell replication is the basic process through which cells form new cell. Cell proliferation is the increase in cell number as a result of cell division and growth. The quantification of cellular growth, including proliferation and viability, has become an essential tool in any laboratory working on cell-based studies. These techniques enable the optimization of cell culture conditions, and the determination of growth factor and cytokine activity. Even more importantly, the efficiency of therapeutic agents in drug screening, the cytostatic potential of anticancer compounds in toxicology testing, and cell-mediated toxicity can be assessed when quantifying cell growth (3). This practical is designed to evaluate the sensitivity and response of putative anti-cancer drugs using a modified anti-proliferative drug assay. Using a modified MTT drug assay, the sensitivity and response of anti-cancer drugs can be determined. In this blind trial, three unlabeled drugs are tested to discover their properties. The trial of these drugs was carried as a blind trial to insure that the results obtained with unbiased. Results

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