Tuesday, August 23, 2011
9/27/11 9:46 AM
Monogamy: one man, one woman Polygyny: one man, two or more wives Polyandry: one woman two or more husbands Anthropology: the study of the biological and cultural evolution and diversity of human beings, past and present. Is a comparative discipline, which seeks to understand what makes people different and what they all have in common. Anthropologists: concerned with the description and explanation of reality Formulate and test hypotheses concerning humankind so they can develop theories about our species. Principle of anthropology: various parts of culture must be viewed in the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnections and interdependence. Theories about the world and reality based on the assumptions and values of ones own culture. 4 sub fields of anthropology Physical anthropology (biological anthropology): Focuses on humans as biological organisms, evolution, and human variation. Analyze fossils and observe living primates to reconstruct the ancestry of the human species. The biocultural perspective focuses on the interaction of biology and culture. Paleoanthropology (the study of the origins of the human species.) Forensic anthropology (specializes in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes.) Primatology ( the study of living and fossil primates.) Human growth, adaptation, and diversity ( the study of the ways in which
the natural and cultural environment impacts human growth and biological diversity.)
Archaeology: studies material remains in order to describe and explain human behavior. Study tools, pottery, and other features such as hearths and enclosures that remain as the testimony of earlier cultures. Bioarchaeology, the study of human remains as a record of cultural processes. Cultural resource management, tied to government policies for the protection of cultural resources and involving surveying and/or excavating archaeological and historical remains threatened by construction or development. CRM is about stewardship of cultural resources. Linguistic anthropology: description of a language the way a sentence is formed or a verb conjugated. History of languages, the way languages change over time. The study of language in its social setting, such as discourse. Cultural anthropology: The study of different patterns in human behavior, thought, and feelings. Focuses on humans as culture-producing and culturereproducing creatures. Culture: A societies shared and learned ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and which generate behavior and are reflected in that behavior.
Applied anthropology (uses knowledge and methods from the four sub fields to solve practical problems, often for a specific client.) Anthropology is empirical based on observation of the world rather than on intuition or faith. Anthropology uses theory (an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of data Anthropology uses hypothesis (tentative explanation of the relation between certain phenomena.)
Ethics of Anthropologists: Obligations to whom we study, those who fund the research, those in the profession who expect a study to be published so they can further the research in the field Globalization refers to worldwide interconnectedness, evidenced in global movements of natural resources, human labor, finance capital, information, infectious diseases, and trade goods. Technology is the driving force in globalization. Innovations, lower transportation and communication costs, faster knowledge transfers, and increased trade and financial integration among countries.
Thursday, August 25, 2011
Introduction to Genetics and Evolution
Linnaean Classification: a classification system that grouped lving thing into groups based on similarity of form, function, and growth Placed humans among the prmates(apes, monkeys and prosimians) and mammals...