Anthropology Lect. 3

Science, Theory, Emic and etic

Chapters 2 and 5 (focus on major theories in this chapter, pages 97-106)

Objectives:After reading the lecture and chapter, each student should be
able to:

1. Place the origins of the discipline in historical context 2. Identify the major figures in the history of anthropology 3. Develop a familiarity with the major theoretical perspectives of the discipline 4. Develop familiarity with the research methodologies used in anthropology, and problems associated with each(this will be a discussion on fieldwork-which is lecture 4)

Each anthropologist has a particular theoretical platform from which to launch his/her field effort….

Theoretical positions serve as platforms to generate working hypotheses (a guess as to how variables work together)

***For example what is the relationship between an increase in students taking on line courses and changes in technology? (the variables are increase students taking online courses and technological changes)

Theories offer general explanations for natural or social phenomena

Cultural theories are different approaches to how and why particular practices began and are maintained in a population or society

Lenkeit: Theoretical Position

“a framework to generate working hypotheses that will explain varios aspects of cultures being studied..”(51)

In formulating theories, anthropologists use the “etic eyes” in studying human cultures. From your readings “etic” is the outsider’s or objective, scientific view of a society and its people. Use of theories to explain behavior

The earliest anthropologists were what I call “armchair anthropologist” because they did not go into the field, but relied upon the works of others-observers for their views about human diversity.

Evolutionism or Uni-lineal Evolution
(first major theory in anthropology)

E. B. Tylor
Lewis Henry Morgan

Societies develop through stages;...
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