CHAP 1 – What is Anthropology
1. Which of the following is not true about Franz Boas?
A. He was a German-born, Jewish person until the Hitler regime
2. The American Anthropological Association (or AAA) acknowledges the public service role provided by anthropology by recognition of which of the following dimensions of the field? B. cultural anthropology or allied
3. What is the most critical element of cultural traditions? C. Their transmission through learning rather than through biological inheritance.
4. What are the four main subdisciplines (four fields) of anthropology? D. Biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and archaeology
5. Which of the following expresses scientists’ preference for explaining biological differences among humans rather than pigeonholing humans into racial classifications? E. Race is a social construct and is therefore a necessary tool for categorizing people of various cultures
6. Why is it important to understand that human racial categories are based upon perceptions of phenotypic features and not on distinct genetic differences? F.
G. Because racial categories are internationally standardized H. Because using a genetic basis for racial differences is more accurate
7. Which of the following is not a distinctive feature of four-field anthropology? I. It has an exclusive focus on contemporary cultures
9. What distinction does the text draw between culture and society? J. Culture is the result of higher education, whereas society is shared by all people. K. Culture is genetically programmed, whereas society is transmitted through social learning. L. People attain culture through international travel but society is the social environment of their native land. M. People share society―organized life in groups―with other animals, but culture is distinctly human. N. Society rests more upon certain features of human biology than culture does.
10. Anthropology is a humanistic science most particularly because: O. It discovers, describes, and attempts to explain similarities and differences among humans, with concern for the full diversity of worldviews and voices. P. Over the years it has compiled an impressive body of knowledge about human life. Q. The techniques it uses come from a variety of sciences, including those that study humans’ relations with other animals. R. It is a systematic study that respects experiment, observation, and deduction as applied to both contemporary human life and human evolution. S. It focuses on quantifiable explanations for human cultural and biological evolution.
11. Which of the following accurately distinguishes ethnography from ethnology? T. Traditionally, ethnography was done in large societies with wealth and power, while ethnology focused on small societies with little wealth U. Ethnography focuses on ancient and traditional societies, while ethnology studies modern and contemporary societies V. Ethnologists compare and contrast and make generalizations about the societies and cultures that ethnographers describe and interpret in detail W. Ethnology focuses on the study of particular cultures, while ethnography looks at cultures comparatively X. Ethnography studies cultures that are isolated from one another, while ethnology studies nations influenced by globalization
12. What do anthropological archaeologists study?
[. Biological adaptation
\. Modern cultural diversity
]. Material remains
13. What is the term for the processes by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses? ^. Phenotype
`. Cultural resource management
14. Biological anthropologists...
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