* derived from the Greek words anthropus meaning “man”, “human” and logus, meaning study * the study of mankind
* the science that treats of the origin, development (physical, intellectual, moral, etc.) and especially the cultural development, customs, beliefs, etc, of man. * the science of man and his work (Herskovitz)
* the scientific study of physical, social, and cultural development and behavior of human beings since their appearance on earth. (Jacobs and Stem) * the study of humankind, everywhere, throughout time, seeks to produce useful generalization about people and their behavior and to arrive at the fullest possible understanding of human diversity * the study of humankind, in all times and places
The Discipline of Anthropology
Anthropology is traditionally divided into four fields: physical anthropology and the three branches of cultural anthropology, which are archeology, linguistics anthropology, and ethnology. The sub-fields of anthropology are shown below.
* physical anthropology – concerned primarily with humans as biological organism * cultural anthropology – deals with humans as cultural animals; the branch of anthropology that focuses on human behavior * archeology – studies materials remains, usually in order to describe and explain human behavior * linguistic anthropology – studies human language
* ethnology or social anthropology – studies cultures from the historical point of view.
Relation of Anthropology to other Sciences
Physical anthropology is related to the biological sciences – anatomy, embryology, physiology, and genetics. Social anthropology is related to sociology, psychology, geography, economics, and political science; is likewise related to the humanistic disciplines, such as history, literature, art, and music.
Practical Application of Anthropology
* reduces ethnocentrism by instilling appreciation of other cultures * contributes to our understanding of human beings
* helps to avoid misunderstandings between peoples
What is Culture?
* the sum total of what man has learned in living together * shared products of human learning
* a complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. * a social heritage, transmitted and shared from one generation to another * a “standard for deciding what is, what can be, how one feels about it, how to go about doing it” * a fabric of ideas, tasks, skills, beliefs, tools, aesthetic objects, methods of thinking, customs, and institutions into which each member of society is born. * a particular stage of civilization of a nation or period, such as Greek culture, the sum total of ways of living built by a group of human beings and transmitted from one generation. * historically created designs for living explicit and implicit, rational, irrational, and non-rational, which exists at any given time as potential guides for behavior. * ways people learned to live together; behavior learned as a result of living in groups which tend to be patterned and to be transmitted from generation to generation. * The environment man has made consisting of artifacts, ideas, language, attitudes, beliefs, customs, etc., existing at a particular time and place.
Classification of Culture
* Static or dynamic – static when it emphasizes cultural transmission, e.g. the same culture is passed on from generation to generation; dynamic, when it emphasizes change, e.g. it goes revision with each generation. * Stable or unstable – stable when folkways and mores are satisfying, new elements and traits are incorporate smoothly and without conflict; unstable, when the group does not have satisfying solutions to most of its problems and conflict exists between the...