Ans Lab Report

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Measurement of Heart Rate for Autonomic Nervous System

Abstract:
The Autonomic Nervous System lab was designed to measure reaction times by using a variety of tests that affect the heart rate. These tests were the startle, stroop, Valsalva maneuver, diving reflex, and a test of our choice. The test our group chose to measure the heart rate in response to doing a trust fall to anticipate the stress right before the fall. To begin this lab we chose a participant, and then hooked their finger up to the pulse transducer sensor. Using the chart 5 program on the lab computer the participant’s heart rate is measured. Before beginning each test we measured the heart rate of the participant to find the resting heart rate, which was named the “control” portion, and then the heart rate was measured once again when the actual test itself was done being the “experimental” portion to see whether the heart rate increased or decreased due to the test. After receiving the data and applying it to the graphs, it was shown that the heart rate increased after the startle test and the stroop test. But the heart rate decreased after the diving test and Valsalva maneuver. During the diving test the heart rate decreased after due to the anticipation of placing the head into the freezing cold water. During the Valsalva maneuver the heart rate decreased because of a release in pressure throughout the body. Heart rate should be fairly constant in all humans; however the rate of speed will differ between different individuals. Introduction:

The nervous system is defined as “a fast-acting control system that triggers muscle contraction or gland secretion” (Marieb 2010). This definition states that the nervous system is the reaction from the brain to the body in order to function in different variations. The nervous system begins in the brain and spinal cord, here three functions take place; sensory input, integration, and motor output. The nervous system is divided into separate categories: the Central Nervous System (CNS), and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).Within the PNS there are subdivisions known as the Motor (Efferent) and the Sensory (Afferent). The Motor division is split into the Autonomic Nervous System which is responsible for the involuntary activities, and the Somatic Division. What was focused on during this lab was the two subdivisions of the Autonomic Nervous System: Sympathetic division and Parasympathetic division. Each subdivision found in the autonomic nervous system commonly performs opposite tasks, where when one is active the other is inactive. The sympathetic division is responsible for “fight or flight”. Fight or flight is the body’s physical reaction and/or movements during a specific instance. For example, if you put your hand on a burner, you pull it right off or increase in heart rate when stress levels are activated. Sympathetic is found in regions of the spinal cord and contain short preganglionic and postganglionic fibers. Cholinergic fibers are one of the fibers found in the sympathetic system and release the neurotransmitter ACh. Another fiber known as the adrenergic fibers produce another transmitter labeled NE. The two neurotransmitters give off both Alpha and Beta receptors that affect the target organ. On the other side of the spectrum the parasympathetic division maintains and conserves energy used for the body, the “rest and digest.” An example of this is the feeling of tiredness or need of being in a relaxed state after eating. The parasympathetic division is largely in control of the heart and smooth muscles of the digestion system. Slowing of the heart rate and rate of digestion are two things controlled by parasympathetic division. Parasympathetic has high control over effectors, yet is short lived. An example in relation between parasympathetic and sympathetic division is while parasympathetic fibers are responsible for an erection, sympathetic fibers are responsible for ejaculation....
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