Annotated Bibliography History of Portable Music

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Chris Schaefer5/16/11
Annotated Bibliography

Zelder, Sampson. "History of Portable Audio Players." Free Online Beginner Guitar Lessons For Kids. Web. 16 May 2011. <>. In 1877, Thomas Edison created the cylinder phonograph. This invention “pioneered the recording and playback of human voice.” The phonograph took vibrations made by sound and then made indentations on a paper so they could be played back. German inventor Emile Berliner's gramophone replaced the phonograph. It did this by utilizing the then mass produced flat discs such as LP records. This marked the start of a boom in the music industry and is where the Grammy Music Awards originated from. These music players, however, were hard to work, and required cranking by hand to operate. New electric music players were being developed that did not need a hand crank. 2.

"History of Music Players - Technabob." Cool Gadgets, Gizmos, Games and Weird Science - Technabob. Web. 16 May 2011. <>. In 1967 the 8-track tape player was created. This portable audio device used a “magnetic recording technology instead of the indentation technology used before.” This allowed for smaller size, and it was the first music player that could be used in a car. In 1978 Sony ushered in an era which completely altered the music industry when they popularized the Walkman 'Soundabout.' This product changed the music world forever with an audio cassette player capable of Hi-Fi stereo sound. In 1983 Sony, together with Philips, produced glossy and shiny CD players, also known as the Discman. These eventually replaced cassette players by the end of the 1980s. Their superiority in sound quality and ability to skip tracks made this method of portable music much better.

Portable Music History. Web. 16 May 2011....
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