WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT: ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY
NAME| :| SIFAJEE |
TITLE| :| ANIMALS SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR CLINICAL RESEARCH IN MALAYSIA|
There is no doubt that throughout the centuries, animals have played a central role in medical research in Malaysia. Many of the treatments available for serious illnesses we have today have come from animal experimentation. There has been recorded that the use of animals in research has been going on as far back as the Greek writings. According to the history, Aristotle who lived in 384-322 BC was the first to use living animals in experiments; whereas Galen, a physician in second-century Rome, was known as the “father of vivisection” from his experiments on living pigs. However, these experiments were not conducted in the name of clinical research; they were done to gain knowledge about the animals themselves. In that period of time, man was not set next to animals in comparison of physiology or any other way because man was seen as a creature above the animal. From century to century, new ideas were developed when Darwin came with his theory of evolution. His theory made a path that linked human with animals; and encouraged researches to be done on different animals to learn how human physiology worked. Even though many believed animal experimentation is important for clinical study, some claimed that it is against the humanity. Many debates have been carried out to argue whether the animal testing is crucial or cruel. The writer believes though many have heard of this matter, yet people need to know about the adverse effects it plays in the toxicology field.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
| | Page|
| Abstract| 2|
| Table of Contents| 3|
| Introduction| 4|
| Argument 1| 5|
| Argument 2| 7|
| Counter Argument & Refutation| 9|
| Conclusion & Recommendations| 13|
| References| 15|
Toxicology is the scientific study of interactions between chemicals or other biohazards to living organisms and their systems; and how to prevent poisoning of such substances in application to human beings. Toxicologists often practice animal experimentations called “vivisection” in order to identify the effects of certain dose of drugs in animals; whether it is beneficial or become poisonous. Vivisection also include procedures such as infecting animals with diseases, poisoning for toxicity testing, brain damaging, maiming, and blinding to administer the impacts those acts have on these animals, and then, the theories created later can be practiced to enhance the human well-being. Nowadays, many animals in Malaysia are being used in toxicology field for clinical experiments, which cause more animal extinction in our country. Many people have been aware of this matter and this polemic has led to many arguments on whether it is really necessary to use animals in clinical study. Even though some people had argued that it is necessary to conduct clinical research on animals, it is believed that the act is no more applicable. The writer claims that animal testing or “vivisection” is inappropriate for clinical research in Malaysia because the results can be misleading and cause sufferings to animals.
Firstly, an animal has a total different DNA and nervous system from a human and therefore you can’t rely on the results. It is claimed that bypass surgery is conducted to save the life of human beings, but the same bypass surgery can be fatal to animals. Similarly, paracetamol is a well-known medicine to cure headache on human, but it will kill a cat, goat or horse. Many of the animal experiments are not only horrible to the animals, but also unreliable. There are tremendous physiological variations between animal and human. According to a source (http://www.veganpeace.com/animal_cruelty/animal_testing.htm), it is stated that: “Drugs like ‘thalidomide’, ‘zomax’ and DES were all tested on animals...