One of Orwell’s goals in writing Animal Farm was to portray the Russian (or Bolshevik) Revolution of 1917. Many of the characters and events of Orwell’s novel parallel those of the Russian Revolution. Manor Farm is a model of Russia, and Mr. Jones, Old Major, Snowball, and Napoleon represent the dominant figures of the Russian Revolution like Nicholas, Lenin and Trotsky.
Mr. Jones represents Tsar Nicholas II, the last Russian Emperor. His rule was marked by his insistence that he was the un-contestable ruler of the nation. During his reign, the Russian people experienced terrible poverty and upheaval, marked by the Bloody Sunday massacre in 1905 when unarmed protestors demanding social reforms were shot down by the army near Nicholas’ palace. As the animals under Jones lead lives of hunger and want. The lives of millions of Russians worsened during Nicholas’ regime. When Russia entered World War I and subsequently lost more men than any country in any previous war, the outraged desperate people began a series of strikes and mutinies that signaled the end of Tsarist control.
When his own generals withdrew their support of him Nicholas abdicated his throne in the hopes of avoiding an all out civil war but the civil war arrived in the form of the Bolshevik Revolution, when Nicholas, like Jones, was removed from his place of rule.
Old Major is the animal version of V. I. Lenin, the leader of the Bolshevik Party that seized...