“Animal farm”, written by George Orwell

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“Animal farm”, written by George Orwell, is a dystopian symbolic novella published in England on 17th August, 1945. The book was greatly inspired by real events that went down during the era of communism in Russia. It reflects events leading up to and during the Stalin era before World War II. In a satirical form, the author used personified farm animals to express his views on politics in Soviet Union as reflected in the novel. The use of farm living beings was a creative way to tell the story because it gives the reader motivation to pay more attention to the characters. The novella illustrates how classes that are initially unified in the face of a common enemy may become internally divided when that enemy is excluded. The inevitability of class and social stratification and the problems of the working classes are some of the most important issues all over the story. Throughout the novel these issues are constantly perceived. One of the main principles of the farm is stated when all animals are considered to be equal, but as the story progresses some animals seem to be more equal than others. This notorious abuse of the word “equal” and of the ideal of equality in general is shown by both, the pigs that are in charge of the prosperity of the farm; and their methods which become increasingly disrespectful. The differences among social classes start rising up uncontrollably as the story goes on. The exposure of this abuse of both power and language remains one of the most persuasive features in Animal Farm showing how a utopia can become a dystopia when power increases without control. From the very beginning of the story the importance of the class issue is significantly depicted. The natural division between intellectual and physical labour quickly comes to express itself as a new set of class partitions, with the pigs that claim to be using their superior intelligence to manipulate society to their own benefit. “The pigs did not actually work, but directed and supervised the others” (Orwell, 16). They claimed that if they had the power to control the farm, they would improve the life condition of all the other animals that lived there. All the animals, except the pigs, were prone to do what they were told. What is more, the pigs started investing their time in learning how to read and write in order to gain supremacy. Taking control of the farm by studying hard and becoming more intellectual would allow them to manipulate the rest of the animals easily. “The pigs now revealed that during the past three months they had taught themselves to read and write from an old spelling book which had belonged to Mr. Jones’ children and which had been thrown on the rubbish heap” (14) As a result of this, power struggle developed between the two smartest and best known pigs, Napoleon and Snowball. They did not agree on much. In fact, they did not agree on anything. They fought all the time and challenged each other every day. Consequently, a revolution started to arise gradually led by the clever pigs. As it was expected, the rebellion ended with the exclusion of Mr. Jones, from the treasurable farm. From that moment onwards the farm was called “Animal farm” and of course, it was ruled by the smart pigs. After some time the pigs began to think that being part of the animal revolution was not enough and they came to the idea of dominating it. The pigs Napoleon, Snowball and Squealer adapted the Old Major’s ideas into a philosophy which they called Animalism. So, an important issue in the book was the creation of the Seven Commandments which animals were supposed to obey at all times in the new farm “1- Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy, 2 - Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend, 3- No animal shall wear clothes, 4 - No animal shall sleep in a bed, 5 -No animal shall drink alcohol, 6 - No animal shall kill another animal, 7- All animals are created equal” (14-15). Since not all the animals could...
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