Today’s technology develops so quickly that many impossible things become true; the example is cloning technology. Cloning is a process used to create an exact copy of a mammal by using the complete genetic material of a regular body cell. Different from the common propagate, cloning needs only one cell and without sex. Cloning, as of recent years, has become a very controversial issue in society but cloning can have several positive effects for the well being of society. Many people in society believe that scientists should develop a clone human but many people and especially the government are against human cloning. Hundreds of cloned animals exist today including sheep, goats, cows, mice, pigs, cats, rabbits, and a gaur. In the last 50 years, techniques such as in vitro fertilization, embryo transfer, embryo splitting, and blastomeric nuclear transfer have become commonplace — providing farmers, ranchers and pet enthusiasts with powerful tools for breeding the best animals. Attempts at cloning certain species have been unsuccessful. For example, “Dolly”, first cloned sheep was the only lamb that survived to adulthood from 277 attempts. However, scientists have found many benefits to animal cloning which can be very significant to be the future of science benefitting humans.
Studies show that, in order for animal cloning to be successful, many steps are necessary. There are three common ways of cloning animals. First one is called Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)- The term somatic cell nuclear transfer refers to the transfer of the nucleus from a somatic cell to an egg cell. A somatic cell is any cell of the body other than a germ (sex) cell. An example of a somatic cell would be a blood cell, heart cell, skin cell, etc. In this process, the nucleus of a somatic cell is removed and inserted into an unfertilized egg that has had its nucleus removed. The egg with its donated nucleus is then nurtured and divides until it becomes an embryo. The embryo is then placed inside a surrogate mother and develops inside the surrogate. Second one is called the Roslin technique - The Roslin Technique is a variation of somatic cell nuclear transfer that was developed by researchers at the Roslin Institute. The researchers used this method to create Dolly. In this process, somatic cells (with nuclei intact) are allowed to grow and divide and are then deprived of nutrients to induce the cells into a suspended or dormant stage. An egg cell that has had its nucleus removed is then placed in close proximity to a somatic cell and both cells are shocked with an electrical pulse. The cells fuse and the egg is allowed to develop into an embryo. The embryo is then implanted into a surrogate. The third technique is called - The Honolulu Technique - The Honolulu Technique was developed by Dr. Teruhiko Wakayama at the University of Hawaii. In this method, the nucleus from a somatic cell is removed and injected into an egg that has had its nucleus removed. The egg is bathed in a chemical solution and cultured. The developing embryo is then implanted into a surrogate and allowed to develop. Many scientists used different technology in cloning. Now, some scientists developing some new techniques but they are not describing their process. However, Roslin technique is widely used.
Animal cloning is a beneficial to the society. It is a reliable way of maintaining high quality and healthy livestock to supply our nutritional needs and consumer demand. Animal cloning offers great benefits to customers and farmers. Cloning enhances the availability of the best possible stock by allowing farmers to be certain of the genetic make-up of a particular animal, thus allowing them to produce high quality, safe, and healthy food. Cloning can offer a tremendous advantage for...