Andragogy vs Pedagogy

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教育、訓練與發展在基本原理原則與技術方法上雖有其共通之處。惟在本質上仍有其差異之處。教育是培養個人氣質、抱負與成就(achievement)的手段。由於教育是高度結構性的有計畫學習,且教育時程甚長,不同教育時程要應用不同之學習理論,因此,教育就必須應用多重學習理論,而訓練則指透過學習補充個人執行目前工作所須的KSAs,亦即知識(knowledge)、技術(Skill)與能力或態度(ability or attitude)。發展則指透過學習補充個人目前及因應未來執行職務所須的KSAs,後二者性質較為相近,常被合併稱為培訓(Training & Development, T&D),為人力資源發展(HRD)首要之議題。由於T&D講求的是職涯的學習,故要發揮T&D之成效,必須著重成人學習理論。

Education, training and development on principles and techniques in the basic principle of the method despite has its common. However, in essence, still has its differences. Education is to develop personal qualities, aspirations and achievement of the means. Since education is a highly structured learning plan, and the education process is very long. For different education use different way to apply learning theory. Therefore, education must be applied to be multiple learning theory. Training refers to people through the implementation of the present study then gain their KSAs for work, it called knowledge, technology (Skill) and ability or attitude. The development is individuals through learning in to gain the KSAs, which is necessarily used in the work now and in the future. Compare to the latter two, training and development are more similar than education. Those two are the top priority issue for human resource development (HRD). As T & D( training and development) emphasis on the career of learning, to run T & D effetely, we must focus on adult learning theory. 成人學習理論 (Andragogy)是指輔助成人學習的藝術與科學(Malcolm Knowles, 1980),與Andragogy相對應的是Pedagogy(兒童學習理論)。Andra源於希臘”aner”,意謂成人(man),而Ped是拉丁的字首,代表兒童(child)。要成為小學老師,必須研修Pedagogy,而培訓管理人員則要研習Andragogy,依據Malcolm Knowles的理論,他認為成人的學習過程與兒童不同,成人的學習是自發的(Self-directing),兒童的學習是依賴的。成人依自我的經驗探索問題,而兒童則依外在的資源,尋求問題的答案,需要由他人告知。兒童涉世太淺,不會重視經驗,成人則太重視經驗,經常以經驗判斷學習,以經驗測試新的概念與行為。同時學習者也希望學習能即刻應用而成為問題解決者(problem-solvers)。 Adult learning theory (Andragogy) is supporting the art and science of adult learning (Malcolm Knowles, 1980). The word Andra derived from the Greek "aner", means adult (man),...
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