In the 1920s, a huge discovery in South Asia proved that Egypt and Mesopotamia were not the only "early civilizations." In the vast Indus River plains (located in what is today Pakistan and western India), under layers of land and mounds of dirt, archaeologists discovered the remains of a 4,600 year-old city. A thriving, urban civilization had existed at the same time as Egyptian and Mesopotamian states — in an area twice each of their sizes. The Indian civilization is one of the most ancient civilizations of the world. It is known as the Sindhu civilization or the Indus Valley civilization or the Aryan civilization. Sometimes it is also referred to as the Vedic civilization. The Aryans kindled the light of this civilization on the banks of the river Sindhu (Indus) in the Northern India, thousands of years ago. Later, they helped spread it across some other parts of the country. The historians can not ascertain the precise period when this great civilization flourished. The scholars differ on the period of its development. Even the origin of the Aryan race has been debatable. Some historians believe that the Aryans migrated from the North Central Asia and settled in India. Some other historians contend that the Aryans have been the natives of India. In the opinion of “Lokmanya Tilak” and other Indian scholars, the Aryan civilization is 4000 to 8000 years old. The Indus Valley Civilization which flourished from about 2600 BCE to 1900 BC, and included urban centers such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro (in Pakistan), marked the beginning of the urban civilization on the subcontinent. It was centred on the Indus River and its tributaries, and extended into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab,Gujarat, and northern Afghanistan.The ruins of Harappa were first described in 1842 by Charles Masson in his Narrative of Various Journeys in Baluchistan, Afghanistan and the Panjab. It was more than half a century later, in 1912, that Harappan seals?with the then unknown symbols?were discovered by J. Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921/22, and resulting in the discovery of the hitherto unknown civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall GEOGRAPHY
Physiographically, India is separated from the rest of Asia by the plateau of Iran on the west, the Himalaya on the north and the Arakan Yoma mountains on the east. Two large rivers, the Indus and the Brahmaputra, rise in the lake region of passes through Kashmir and Punjab into the Arabian Sea. The Brahmaputra traverses the plain of Assam and forms a joint delta with the Ganges River at the Bay of Bengal. The valleys of these three rivers form, to the south of the Himalaya, a great plain, upon which most of the people live. The soil is very fertile, but in places there is a scarcity of rainfall. With irrigation, however, two crops a year can be grown with comparative case. The country has there rather distinct geographical divisions; 1. The region of the Himalaya, which rises to a height of 29000 feet; 2. The fertile valley of the great rivers, which receives the drainage of the northern as well as of the southern slopes of the Himalaya; 3. The Deccan or southern plateau.
In spite of the high mountains that separate India from the mainland of Asia, access is possible through the passes, by which numerous invaders have entered the peninsula. The invaders had to enter to the subcontinent through the mountainous paths from western part of the country. The natural barriers for the invaders were the Himalaya, the Arakan Yoma Mountain and the Indian Ocean.
Climate was an ingredient in early Indian civilizations for several reasons. Monsoons, winds that mark the seasons, are one of the most immediate. The first monsoon of the season blows from North to Northeast periodically during November through March. Little rain is present during this monsoon, however what...