Ancient History: Pompeii and Herculaneum

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Pompeii and Herculaneum

Students learn about:

Non-examinable background
stages of occupation
brief historical overview up to and including the eruption of AD 79 •early discoveries and brief history of the excavations
representations of Pompeii and Herculaneum over time

Examinable content:

1Geographical context
the physical environment: the geographical setting, natural features and resources of Pompeii and Herculaneum •plans and streetscapes of Pompeii and Herculaneum

2The nature of sources and evidence
the range of available sources, both written and archaeological, including ancient writers, official inscriptions, graffiti, wall paintings, statues, mosaics, human and animal remains •the limitations, reliability and evaluation of sources

the evidence provided by the sources from Pompeii and Herculaneum for: –the eruption
the economy: trade, commerce, industries, occupations
social structure; men, women, freedmen, slaves
local political life
everyday life: leisure activities, food and dining, clothing, health, baths, water supply and sanitation –public buildings – basilicas, temples, fora, theatres, palaestra, amphitheatres –private buildings – villas, houses, shops

influence of Greek and Egyptian cultures: art, architecture, religion –religion: temples, household gods, foreign cults, tombs.

3Investigating, reconstructing and preserving the past
changing methods and contributions of nineteenth and twentieth century archaeologists to our understanding of Pompeii and Herculaneum •changing interpretations: impact of new research and technologies •issues of conservation and reconstruction: Italian and international contributions and responsibilities; impact of tourism •ethical issues: study and display of human remains

Option GGreece: The Bronze Age – Society in Minoan Crete

Principal Focus: The investigation of the key features of Minoan society in Crete through a range of archaeological and written sources and relevant historiographical issues.

Students learn about:

1The geographical environment
geographical setting, natural features and resources of Minoan Crete –significant sites: Knossos, Phaestos, Malia, Zakros, Agia Triada, Gournia

2Social structure and political organisation
issues relating to gender and identity of the ruler/s
palace elite: bureaucracy, priests and priestesses
roles and status of women
craftsmen and agricultural workers

3The economy
palace economy
importance of agriculture
role of towns: Gournia and Zakros
trade and economic exchange: Mediterranean and Aegean region –the issue of thalassocracy (maritime empire)
crafts and industry: pottery, stone, ivory, metal, jewellery, seal stones, purple dye –technology: building materials, techniques and construction (ashlar masonry), drainage and water supply

4Religion, death and burial
nature and identity of deities
religious symbols: double axe (labrys) horns of consecration, the bull, snakes, trees, birds –religious places: peak sanctuaries, cave shrines, palace shrines, pillar crypts, lustral basins –rituals: sacrifice, libations, processions, dance

funerary customs and rituals: larnax, ossuary; tombs: rectangular, tholos and chamber –myths and legends relating to the Minoans: Theseus and the Minotaur, Icarus and Daedalus

5Cultural life
art: frescoes, figurines, pottery, seals, metalwork
architecture of palace complexes: Knossos, Phaistos, Malia, Zakros and other palace sites –writing: Linear A and Linear B, the Phaistos disc

6Everyday life
daily life and leisure activities
food and clothing
housing and furniture

Option AEgypt: Hatshepsut

Principal Focus: Students gain an understanding of Hatshepsut in the context of her time.

Students learn about:

1Historical context
geography, topography and resources of Egypt and its neighbours –historical...
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