Ancient Greek and Roman Civilization

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• Greeks used observation and reason to find causes for what happened • Ethics and morality
• In Athens, Sophism- success is more important than moral truth o Rhetoric- art of skillful speaking
o Socrates- Sophist, Athenian philosopher
▪ Socratic Method- pose series of questions to students and challenge them to examine the implications of their answers o Plato- student of Socrates
▪ Emphasized the importance of reason “People could discover unchanging ethical values, recognize perfect beauty, and learn how best to organize society” ▪ Academy
▪ The Republic- vision of an ideal state (Ideal Society: Workers, Soldiers and Philosophers), talented women should be should be educated to serve the state o Aristotle- ideas of government- “How people ought to live?” ▪ Lyceum- politics, ethics, biology, literature

• Plato “Every object on earth had an ideal form”- balance, order, and beauty

o Perfect balance, harmony and order of the universe o Parthenon, dedicated to Athena
o Emphasized natural poses, lifelike and idealistic o Carved gods, goddesses, athletes and famous men which shows their most perfect, graceful form

LITERATURE- classical style- elegant, balance
o Epics of Homer, Sapho (love and beauty), Pindar (athletic contest) o DRAMA- most important contribution
▪ Based on popular myths and legends
▪ Discussed moral and social issues, relationship of people and gods o TRAGEDY
▪ Aeschylus (The Orosteia), Sophocles (Antigone), Euripides (The Trojan Women) ▪ Human suffering ended in disaster- stir emotions of pity and fear o COMEDIES

▪ Humorous plays that mocked people and customs ▪ Aristophanes (Lysistrata)
o Herodotus- Father of History- “The Persian Wars” o Importance of research and avoid bias


Philip II- King of Macedonia
• Conquering prosperous city states to the south
• Through threats, bribery, diplomacy, he formed an alliance with many Greek city states • Battle of Chaeronea- Athens and Thebes vs. Macedonia (Philip II won the battle) • To conquer the Persian empire

• He was assassinated for political reasons

Alexander the Great
• Son of Philip II
• Expanded the territories- conquered the Persian Empire (Asia Minor, Palestine, South Egypt, Babylon, North India) • Death of Alexander the Great led to years of disorder o Three Generals divided the empire: Macedonia and Greece, Egypt and Persia • Legacy: spread of Greek culture

o Blending of cultures- Egypt and India: temples, married with a Persian women- adapted Persian customs • Hellenistic Age- new culture that emerged which blended Greek, Persian, Egyptian and Indian influences o Women learned to read and write

o New Schools of Thought: Stoicism by Zeno- avoid desires and disappointments by means of acceptance, high moral standards: protect the rights of fellowmen o Advances in Learning:

▪ Mathematics: Pythagorean theorem- calculate relationships of the sides of a right triangle, The Elements (modern geometry by Euclid) ▪ Astronomy: Aristarchus (Heliocentric theory), Erastosthenes (circumference of the Earth) ▪ Science: Archimedes (Physics, use of lever and pulley) ▪ Medicine: Hippocrates (causes of illnesses and looked for cures), Hippocratic Oath


LATINS- Tiber River
• Put up Rome city when population grew and economy developed •...
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