Ancient Egypt vs. Mesopotamia

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Ancient Egypt vs. Mesopotamia
Jason Johnson

Thousands of years ago, the first civilizations emerged onto the face of the Earth. They weren’t as diverse as some of today’s civilizations, but, they were still civilizations. Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia are maybe the most widely known of the first early civilizations. The two civilizations had similarities and differences in their political, economical, religious, and cultural aspects. Both of the civilizations had a form of political system. They both had a ruler or a king (or pharaoh). Both civilizations rulers thought that they had a connection to the gods through their leadership. Though their belief was similar, they were a little different. The Egyptians and pharaohs believed that they were the incarnation of Horus and the son of the sun god, Re. Both of these civilizations were economically lucky to have built a civilization near an abundant source of water. The rivers they settled on had efficient seasonal flooding which helped their agriculture grow. These floods were seasonal meaning they happened at the same time every year. They also happened at the best time for crops to grow. The two civilizations needed more than just food to thrive. In Mesopotamia, there would often be disagreements between farmers. That was one of the reasons Hammurabi’s code was developed. The code was the law of Mesopotamia and helped establish justice. Unlike Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt did not have a law code. The reason being, the people believed that the divine king or pharaoh was the source of everything including justice and law. Almost every civilization has religious aspects. This also applies to ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Both of these civilizations were polytheistic. Because Egypt was “the gift of the Nile” and generally prosperous and harmonious, Egyptian gods tended to reflect a positive religion with an emphasis on a positive afterlife. The most popular god, Osiris, was also the law...
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