Anatomy and PhysiologyHuman Brain
The anatomy of the brain is complex due its intricate structure and function. Thisamazing organ acts as a control center by receiving, interpreting, and directing sensoryinformation throughout the body. There are three major divisions of the brain. They arethe forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.
Anatomy of the Brain: Brain Divisions
The forebrain is responsible for a variety of functions including receiving andprocessing sensory information, thinking, perceiving, producing and understandinglanguage, and controlling motor function. There are two major divisions of forebrain: thediencephalon and the telencephalon. The diencephalon contains structures such as thethalamus and hypothalamus which are responsible for such functions as motor control,relaying sensory information, and controlling autonomic functions. The telencephaloncontains the largest part of the brain, the cerebral cortex. Most of the actual informationprocessing in the brain takes place in the cerebral cortex
and the hindbrain together make up the brainstem. The midbrain is theportion of the brainstem that connects the hindbrain and the forebrain. This region of thebrain is involved in auditory and visual responses as well as motor function
Definition of Cerebrovascular accident
Cerebrovascular accident: The sudden death of some brain cells due to lack of oxygen when the blood flow to the brain is impaired by blockage or rupture of an artery to the brain. A CVA is also referred to as a stroke. Symptoms of a stroke depend on the area of the brain affected. The most common symptom is weakness or paralysis of one side of the body with partial or complete loss of voluntary movement or sensation in a leg or arm. There can be speech problems and weak face muscles, causing drooling. Numbness or tingling is very common. A stroke involving the base of the brain can affect balance, vision, swallowing, breathing and even unconsciousness. A stroke is a medical emergency. Anyone suspected of having a stroke should be taken immediately to a medical facility for diagnosis and treatment. The causes of stroke: An artery to the brain may be blocked by a clot (thrombosis) which typically occurs in a blood vessel that has previously been narrowed due to atherosclerosis ("hardening of the artery"). When a blood clot or a piece of an atherosclerotic plaque (a cholesterol and calcium deposit on the wall of the artery) breaks loose, it can travel through the circulation and lodge in an artery of the brain, plugging it up and stopping the flow of blood; this is referred to as an embolic stroke. A blood clot can form in a chamber of the heart when the heart beats irregularly, as in atrial fibrillation; such clots usually stay attached to the inner lining of the heart but they may break off, travel through the blood stream, form a plug (embolus) in a brain artery and cause a stroke. A cerebral hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain), as from an aneurysm (a widening and weakening) of a blood vessel in the brain, also causes stroke. The diagnosis of stroke involves a medical history and a physical examination. Tests are done to search for treatable causes of a stroke and help prevent further brain damage. A CAT scan (a special X-ray study) of the brain is often done to show bleeding into the brain; this is treated differently than a stroke caused by lack of blood supply. A CAT scan also can rule out some other conditions that may mimic a stroke. A soundwave of the heart (echocardiogram) may be done to look for a source of blood clots in the heart. Narrowing of the carotid artery (the main artery that supplies blood to each side of the brain) in the neck can be seen with a soundwave test called a carotid ultrasound. Blood tests are done to look for signs of inflammation which can suggest inflamed arteries. Certain blood proteins are tested that can increase the chance of stroke by thickening the...