Anatomy: Major Building Blocks of Bones

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Chapter 4

• Bone fufills two important mechanical functions
1. Provides framework that supports and protects other body tissues 2. Forms a system of rigid levers that can be moved by forces from attaching muscles

• Major building blocks of bones
1. calcium carbonate- 60 to 70 percent of dry bone weight 2. Calcium phosphate- 60 to 70 percent of dry bone weight 3. Collagen
4. Water- 25 to 30 percent of bone weight
• The building blocks gives stiffness and are determinants of compressive strength • Collagen provides bone with flexibility in contributes to tensile strength • water carries nutrients to and waste products away from the living bone cells • Porous: containing pores or cavities

• Trabecular bone :
Honeycomb structure
Less compact mineralized connective tissue with high porosity • Strain: is the amount of deformation divided by the original length • Cortical bone is stiffer than trabecular meaning it can withstand greater stress but less train • Bone is the strongest in resisting compression and weakest in resisting shear • anisotropic a different mechanical properties in response to load from different directions • axial skeleton

the skull, vertebrae, sternum and ribs
• appendicular skeleton
bones composing the body appendages
• short bones
small, cubicle, including carpals and tarsals
• flat bones
flat in shape; scapula
• irregular bones
irregular shapes; sacrum
• long bone
long shaft with bulbous ends; femur
• articular cartilage
protective layer of firm, flexible connective tissue over the articulating ends of long bones • Epiphysis
Growth center of a bone that produces a new bone tissues as part of the normal growth process until adulthood • Periosteum
Double layered membrane covering the bone
Muscle tendons attach to the outside layer
Internal layer is a site...
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