Anatomy: Cardiovascular Anatomy and Physiology

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CARDIOVASCULAR ANATOMY
AND PHSYSIOLOGY

Professor Carrie Polnyj

Blood Flow THROUGH the
RIGHT Heart
• Superior vena
cava/ inferior vena
cava
• Right atrium
• Tricuspid Valve
• Right Ventricle
• Pulmonary artery

Blood Flow through the Left
Heart






Pulmonary veins
Left Atrium
Mitral/bicuspid valve
Left ventricle
Aorta (ascending/
descending)

1

Cardiac Contraction
• Diastole=relaxation=filling with blood
• Systole=contraction=ejection of blood
• Left and right heart work simultaneously
yet independently

Tricuspid/Bicuspid Valves
• During Atrial filling
(diastole) the
tricuspid and
bicuspid valves are
closed.
• As the pressure in
the atria increase, the
valves are forced
open and blood
drops into the
ventricles

Pulmonic/Aortic Valves
• During ventricular
filling (diastole), the
pulmonic and aortic
valves are closed (shut)
• As the pressure in the
ventricles increases,
these valves are forced
open and eject blood
into the aorta/systemic
circulation (systole)

2

Layers of the Heart
• Endocardium=inner
layer. Continous with
valves and lining of
blood vessels
• Myocardium=middle
layer. “Muscle”
• Pericardium=outer
layer, “double layer”,
filled with pericardial
fluid.

Cardiac Conduction
• Sinoatrial (SA) node
(through right atrium)
• Bachmann’s bundle
(through left atrium)
• Atrioventricular (AV)
node
• Bundle of His (R &L)
(through the ventricles)

Blood Supply TO the Heart
• Right coronary
artery
– R ventricle,
SA/AV node
– Inferior wall
MI with
bradycardia

3

Blood Supply TO the Heart
• Left Coronary
Artery
– Main supplier of
left ventricle
(anterior wall)
– Lateral wall of
left atrium and
ventricle
– Massive MI
– High mortality
rate

Blood supply TO the heart
• Left anterior
descending
– Anterior wall left
ventrilce
– Anteroseptal MI

Blood Supply TO the Heart
• Left Circumflex
– Lateral wall left
atrium and
ventricle
– Lateral wall MI

4

Arteries
• Carry oxygenated
blood from the heart
to peripheral organs
• Thick walled and
muscular
• High pressure system

Veins
• Carry deoxygenated
blood from organs to
the heart and lungs
• Thin walls, can
expand
• Veins in the lower
extremities have
valves
• Low pressure system

Vessels, side by side comparison

5

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