Anatomy : Blood (C) Jkaser

Topics: Blood, Blood type, Red blood cell Pages: 11 (1601 words) Published: September 9, 2013
Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb
Seventh Edition

Chapter 10

Blood

Slides 10.1 – 10.31
Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Blood

 The only fluid tissue in the human body  Classified as a connective tissue  Living cells = formed elements  Non-living matrix = plasma

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Slide 10.2

Blood

Figure 10.1
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Slide 10.3

Physical Characteristics of Blood
 Color range Oxygen-rich blood is scarlet red Oxygen-poor blood is dull red   pH must remain between 7.35–7.45  Blood temperature is slightly higher than body temperature Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Slide 10.4

Blood Plasma
 Composed of approximately 90 percent water  Includes many dissolved substances  Nutrients  Salts (metal ions)  Respiratory gases  Hormones  Proteins  Waste products Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Slide 10.5

Plasma Proteins

 Albumin – regulates osmotic pressure  Clotting proteins – help to stem blood loss when a blood vessel is injured  Antibodies – help protect the body from antigens

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Slide 10.6

Formed Elements

 Erythrocytes = red blood cells  Leukocytes = white blood cells  Platelets = cell fragments

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Slide 10.7

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Slide 10.8

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Slide 10.9

Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells)
 The main function is to carry oxygen  Anatomy of circulating erythrocytes  Biconcave disks  Essentially bags of hemoglobin  Anucleate (no nucleus)  Contain very few organelles

 Outnumber white blood cells 1000:1
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Slide 10.10

Hemoglobin
 Iron-containing protein  Binds strongly, but reversibly, to oxygen  Each hemoglobin molecule has four oxygen binding sites  Each erythrocyte has 250 million hemoglobin molecules Slide 10.11

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Leukocytes (White Blood Cells)
 Crucial in the body’s defense against disease  These are complete cells, with a nucleus and organelles  Able to move into and out of blood vessels (diapedesis)  Can move by ameboid motion  Can respond to chemicals released by damaged tissues Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Slide 10.12

Leukocyte Levels in the Blood
 Normal levels are between 4,000 and 11,000 cells per millimeter  Abnormal leukocyte levels  Leukocytosis  Above 11,000 leukocytes/ml  Generally indicates an infection  Leukopenia  Abnormally low leukocyte level  Commonly caused by certain drugs Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Slide 10.13

Types of Leukocytes
 Granulocytes
 Granules in their cytoplasm can be stained  Include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils Figure 10.4
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Slide 10.14

Types of Leukocytes
 Agranulocytes
 Lack visible cytoplasmic granules  Include lymphocytes and monocytes Figure 10.4
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Slide 10.15

Granulocytes
 Neutrophils
 Multilobed nucleus with fine granules  Act as phagocytes at active sites of infection

 Eosinophils
 Large brick-red cytoplasmic granules  Found in repsonse to allergies and parasitic worms Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings...
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