Anatomy and physiology II
December 2, 2012
The coughing, sneezing, vomiting, and the restless nights is a place where we have all been quite a few times; and sometimes it feels like it could be for the last time. What people don’t think about is why all this is happening to them. Little do we know our cells are undergoing just as much trouble as we are; a lot more goes on in the microscopic world than people think. Elie Mitchnikoff could tell you all about this. He was a biologist who was best known for the pioneering in the research of the immune system. In 1882 Elie mitchnikoff won the Noble Prize in Medicine for his work on phagocytosis when experimenting on larvae in starfish. Phagocytes are specific white blood cells called leukocytes that perform this action that Elie Mitchnikoff found. Phagocytosis is the engulfing or ingestion of foreign substances in our bodies such as microbes, bacteria, debris, and damaged or worn out tissue cells. Although we may get cuts and bruises, our bodies are actually quite amazing. You may not believe it, but our bodies work to the best of their abilities and are on a frequent combat to keep us healthy. They do this by our Immune system. Tell better understand phagocytosis getting more into depth about this is necessary. There are two types of immunity. Innate immunity (also called nonspecific immunity) and adaptive immunity (also called specific immunity). Innate immunity or nonspecific immunity is going to be subdivided into two things. It has a first line of defense and a second line of defense that have been present since birth. When we call it nonspecific immunity we mean that they don’t necessarily know what type of virus, what type of bacteria, or what type of foreign substance it is. They generally respond to things that are bad. All they know is that they see something that isn’t suppose to belong and they respond to it, but they don’t remember it. The first line of defense...
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