Anatomy and Physiology of the Brain

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STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

* Neurologic system consists of two main divisions, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is composed of both central & peripheral elements.

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
* Is composed of the brain and the spinal cord and associated nerves. * Structurally the brain consists of the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem & limb. *
* CEREBRUM
* Largest part of the brain
* Is the center for consciousness, thought, memory, sensory input, and motor activity; * It consists of two hemispheres (left & right) and four lobes each with specific functions. * 2 hemispheres

* The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and is the center for logical and analytical functions such as reading, writing, and mathematical tasks. * The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and is the center for creative intuition, and artistic ability. * Sulcus – separates the cerebrum into the right and left hemisphere. * Corpus callosum – is a thick collection of nerve fibers that connects two hemispheres of the brain and is responsible for the transmission of information from one side of the brain to the other. * 4 lobes

* Frontal lobe
* Largest lobe, located in front of the skull. * Major functions of this lobe are concentration, abstract thought, information storage or memory and motor functions. * Controls voluntary muscle movements and contains motor areas, including the area for speech. * It also contains the centers for personality, behavioral, autonomic & intellectual functions and those for emotional and cardiac responses.

* Temporal lobe
* Contains the auditory receptive areas located around the temples.. * Contains a vital area called the interpretative area that provides integration of somatization, visual and auditory areas and plays the most dominant role of any area of the cortex in thinking * Parietal lobe

* Coordinates and interprets sensory information from the opposite side of the body. * A predominantly sensory lobe located near the crown of the head. * This lobe analyzes information and relays the interpretation of this information to the thalamus and other cortical areas. * Essential to a person’s awareness of the body in space, as well as orientation in space and spatial relations. * Occipital lobe

* Posterior lobe of the cerebral hemisphere located at the lower back of the head. * Assist in coordinating language generation and visual interpretation and depth perception. * CEREBELLUM

* Sits between the cerebrum and the brainstem.
* Receives and integrates information from all areas of the body, such as muscle and other components of the CNS. * Controls smooth muscle movements, coordinates sensory impulses with muscle activity, and maintains muscle tone and equilibrium. * BRAIN STEM

* Sits at the bottom of the brain.
* Connects the brain to the spinal cord.
* Which includes the mesence phalon, pons, and medulla oblongata, relays nerve impulses between the brain and spinal cord. * Midbrain
* Connects the pons and cerebellum with the cerebral hemispheres. * It contains sensory and motor pathways and serves as the center for auditory and visual reflexes. * Cranial nerves III and IV originates in the midbrain * Pons

* Situated in front of the cerebellum between the midbrain and the medulla. * Bridges the gap both structurally and functionally serving as a primary motor part. * Contains motor and sensory pathways.

* Portion...
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