1. To define the following: blood flow; viscosity; peripheral resistance; systole; diastole; end diastolic volume; end systolic volume; stroke volume; cardiac output.
2. To explore cardiovascular dynamics using an experimental setup to simulate a human body function.
3. To understand that heart and blood vessel functions are highly coordinated. 4. To comprehend that pressure differences provide the driving force that moves blood through the blood vessels.
5. To recognize that body tissues may differ in their blood demands at a given time.
6. To identify the most important factors in control of blood flow. 7. To comprehend that changing blood vessel diameter can alter the pumping ability of the heart.
8. To examine the effect of stroke volume on blood flow.
_____________________________________________________________ The physiology of human blood circulation can be divided into two distinct but remarkably harmonized processes: (1) the pumping of blood by the heart, and (2) the transport of blood to all body tissues via the vasculature, or blood vessels. Blood supplies all body tissues with the substances needed for survival, so it is vital that blood delivery is ample for tissue demands.
The Mechanics of Circulation
To understand how blood is transported throughout the body, let’s examine three important
cardiovascular system: blood flow, blood pressure, and peripheral resistance. Blood flow is the amount of blood moving through a body area or the entire cardiovascular system in a given amount of time. While total blood flow i s determined by cardiac output (the amount of blood the heart is able to pump per minute), blood flow to specific body areas can vary dramatically in a given time period. Organs differ in their requirements from moment to moment, and blood vessels constrict or dilate to regulate local blood flow to various areas in
response to the tissue’s immediate needs. Consequently, blood flow can increase to some regions and decrease to other areas at the same time. Blood pressure is the force blood exerts against the wall of a blood vessel. Owing to cardiac activity, pressure is highest at the heart end of any artery. Because of the effect of peripheral resistance, which will be discussed shortly, pressure within the arteries (or any blood vessel) drops as the distance (vessel length) from the heart increases. This pressure gradient causes blood to move from and then back to the heart, always moving from high- to low-pressure areas.
Peripheral resistance is the opposition to blood flow resulting from the friction developed as blood streams through blood vessels. Three factors affect vessel resistance: blood viscosity, vessel radius, and vessel length. Blood viscosity is a measure of the “thickness” of the blood, and is caused by the presence of proteins and formed elements in the plasma (the fluid part of the blood). As the viscosity of a fluid increases, its flow rate through a tube decreases. Blood viscosity in healthy persons normally does not change, but certain conditions such as too many or too few blood cells may modify it. Controlling blood vessel radius (one-half of the diameter) is the principal method of blood flow control. This is accomplished by contracting or relaxing the smooth muscle within the blood vessel walls. To see why radius has such a pronounced effect on blood flow, we need to explore the physical relationship between blood and the vessel wall. Blood in direct contact with the vessel wall flows relatively slowly because of the friction, or drag, between the blood and the lining of the vessel. In contrast, fluid in the center of the vessel flows more freely because it is not “rubbing” against the vessel wall. When we contrast large- and small-radius vessels, we see that proportionately more blood is in contact with the wall of small vessels,...