Topics: Bone, Skeletal system, Joints Pages: 5 (1021 words) Published: April 16, 2013
Anatomy (Assignment 1)


Vertebral Column





External Auditory Canal

MandibleStyloid Process

Long Bones- The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide, such the femur and humerous. Long bones are made up of three sections; the diaphysis and the epiphysis which is at both ends of the diaphysis. The ends of epiphyses are covered with hyaline cartilage. Short Bones- Short bones in the human body are cubelike -- the length, width, and height measurements are all about the same. Short bones include the carpal bones (hands, wrist) and tarsal bones (feet, ankles).

Flat Bones-Flat bones are made up of a layer of spongy bone between two thin layers of compact bone. Flat bones include the skull and ribs. Irregular bones-Irregular bones are bones which do not belong to other categories because of their irregular shape. An example of irregular bones are the vertebrae.

Sesmasoid bones-A small, rounded bone that is embedded in a tendon or joint capsule. Sesamoid bones are typically found where a tendon works over a ridge of underlying bone. Such as the patella.

Functions of the Skeleton
Support- Bones and cartilage that make up the skeleton are the only rigid materials in the body. The 206 bones of the skeleton provide a framework and points of attachment for many of the soft tissues of the body. Protection-These structures protect some of the vital tissues and functional organs of the body. examples of this are: * Skull - protects the brain

* Vertebrae - protects the spinal cord
* Ribs - protects the heart and lungs
Muscle Attachment- Muscle attachment is a function of the skeleton as all muscles are connected to bones via tendons.
Lever System- Lever systems are what make the skeleton able to move. For example walking uses levers in the legs.
Blood Production- The red bone marrow inside some larger bones is where blood cells are produced. Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
Mineral Store- Bone tissues store several minerals, including calcium and phosphorus. When required, bone releases minerals into the blood – helping the balance of minerals in the body. Bone Growth- Bones are formed by the ossification of cartilage. This is when all bones start off as cartilage and they gradually turn to hard bone over a period of years. Calcium is needed for strong bone growth which is stored in bone tissue

Fibrous- The Fibrous joints connect bones without allowing any movement. The bones of your skull and pelvis are held together by fibrous joints. The spinous processes and vertebrae are fibrous joints. Cartilaginous- Cartilaginous joints allow more movement than fibrous joints but not as much as synovial joints. Cartilaginous joints are joints in which the bones are attached by cartilage. These joints allow for only a little movement, such as in the spine or ribs.

Synovial- Synovial joints allow for much more movement than cartilaginous and fibrous joints. Cavities between bones in synovial joints are filled with synovial fluid. Synovial fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones. Synovial joints include hinge, ball and socket and pivot.

Hinge joints- An example of using the hinge joint in sport is extending the lower leg when kicking a football.
Ball and socket joints- An example of using the ball and socket joint in sport is the circumduction of the shoulder when bowling a cricket ball.
Pivot joint- An example of using the pivot joint in sport is heading the ball in...
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