Anatomical Study of Sanseviera

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ANATOMICAL STUDY OF Sansevieria zeylanica LEAVES AFFECTED BY VEHICULAR EMISSIONS

by

Antonio, Nathaniel D. Bacunot, Lowie S. Bayona, Gem L. Misola, Charisse M. Parangat, John Kelly R.

A special problem submitted to Prof. Liezel Ann M. Magtoto Department of Biology College of Science University of the Philippines Baguio

In partial fulfilment of the requirements of the course in Plant Anatomy

September 14, 2012

ABSTRACT This study deals with the effect of air pollution on different plant structures on the responses of Sansevieria zeylanica to vehicular emissions in three selected sites in Baguio City: UP Drive, UP Campus, and Botanical Garden Nursery whose intensities of vehicular emissions were evaluated by monitoring the vehicular volume along these sites over a 24-hour period. Since only UP Drive is the site where vehicles can pass through, a qualitative comparison is made ranging from light, moderate and heavy. The vehicular volume for UP Drive is 48,063. The responses of S. zeylanica to vehicular emissions were determined using the plant leaves‟ stomatal index and density, stomatal aperture length, guard cell size, and size of epidermal cells. Stomatal index and Stomatal Density were calculated using a Low Power Objective with a magnification of 100x. Stomatal Aperture, Size of Epidermal Cells and Guard Cells were observed under a compound light microscope at High Power Objective with a magnification of 400x. Results showed that samples from Botanical garden have the longest stomatal aperture among the three sites. UP drive and UP campus have aperture length with means that were statistically equal. Botanical garden has the smallest epidermal cell area compared to the two sites. The mean guard cell area of UP Campus was the largest and UP Drive was the smallest. Lastly, UP Drive has the smallest stomatal index. The indexes of Botanical garden and UP Campus were statistically equal. It can be drawn from this study that vehicular emissions decrease the length of stomatal aperture, increase epidermal cell size, decrease guard cell area and stomatal index. Results were analyzed using One-way ANOVA, further supported by SNK, Dunkan Test and Pearson‟s Correlation test.

INTRODUCTION In today‟s growing economy, there is a great increase in pollution as the population also increases. One of the major environmental threats that our country is facing today is vehicular emissions. Vehicular emission remains a threat to environmental problem which is expected to increase as the vehicle ownership increases in the country. In response to this problem, there has been attention drawn to the effect of these vehicular emissions to the growth of the plants. There is a growing concern that vehicular emissions generally affect the gas exchange in plants. In this study, the leaves of Sansevieria zeylanica were examined. A leaf epidermis is composed of compactly arranged cells, cuticle and stomata. The leaf may be amphistomatic, epistomatic or most commonly, hypostomatic. The stomata are scattered in the broad dicotyledon leaves while they occur in rows parallel with the long axis of the leaf in the narrow elongated leaves of monocots. The stomata may be located above the surface of the epidermis, on the same level or below it. Stomata are small apertures found in the epidermis of vascular plants, (Esau 1965) specifically they occur on stems, leaves, flowers and fruits but not on aerial roots. They occur on both surfaces of many leaves (amphistomatous) or on only one surface (hypostomatous or epistomatous). Stomata are bounded by guard cells. Stomata, from the Greek word stoma which means “mouth” provides an essential connection between the internal air spaces of plants and the external atmosphere. These pores are associated with cuticle bordered by pairs of structurally and physiologically specialized guard cells and adjacent epidermal cells termed subsidiary cells. These subsidiary cells, (Jarvis and Mansfield, 1981)...
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