Anatomy and Physiology 1
January 11th, 2014
1. Describe how an early interest in the human body eventually led to the development of modern medical science. Changes in lifestyle were reflected in illnesses and early doctors began to learn how certain herbs and potions affected body functions. The idea that humans could understand forces that caused natural events led to the development of modern science.
2. Distinguish between anatomy and physiology. Anatomy is deals with the form and organization of body parts and Physiology deals with the function of these parts.
3. Explain the relationship between the form and function of body parts and give three examples. The body is made up of several parts that contribute to the operation of the unit as a whole. This functional role arises from the way the part is constructed. Ex. Hand (grasping), heart (pumping blood), mouth (chewing food).
4. Describe the relationship between each of the following pairs: molecules and cells- several molecules join to form organelles, several organelles join to form a cell. Tissues and organs-several cells are joined to form tissues or tissue layers and several tissues join to form an organ. Organs and organ systems- Organs form organ systems and organ systems constitute the organism.
5. Which characteristics of life can you identify in yourself? Movement, Responsiveness, Growth, Reproduction, Respiration, Digestion, Absorption, Circulation, Assimilation, Excretion.
6. Identify those characteristics of living organisms that relate to metabolism. Water, food, oxygen, heat and pressure.
7. Compare your own needs for survival with the requirements of organisms described in the chapter. The human body requires homeostasis or a stable internal environment protected from our external environment.
8. Explain the relationship between homeostasis and the internal environment. Our cells as part of organs and organ systems interact in ways to keep our internal environment stable despite our ever changing external environment. This is called homeostasis and requires most of our metabolic energy.
9. Describe a general physiological control system, including the role of negative feedback. A room equipped with both a furnace and air conditioner and a thermostat set at 20 degrees Celsius. If the temperature drops below the set temperature the furnace will kick on and remain until the set control is reached and if the temperature goes above the set temperature the air conditioner will kick on until the set control temperature is reached. The response to the change in the set control temperature that causes the proper utility to react is the negative feedback.
10. Explain the control of body temperature. The hypothalamus in the brain helps regulate body temperature. If you become overheated it triggers the sweat glands to secrete watery perspiration carrying away heat and cooling the body. At the same time blood vessels in the skin dilate allowing the blood that carries heat from deeper tissues to reach the surface, where more heat is lost to the outside. If body temperature drops the hypothalamus triggers heat-conserving and heat-generating activities. Blood vessels constrict, reducing blood flow and enabling deeper tissues to retain heat. At the same time, small groups of muscle cells may be stimulated to contract involuntarily causing the body to shiver and produce heat.
11. Describe the homeostatic mechanisms that help regulate blood pressure and blood glucose-what do they have in common and how are they different? Sensory receptors in the walls of blood help regulate blood pressure and the pancreas helps control the glucose level in the body. They are alike because both are capable of lowering and raising levels. They are different because blood pressure is changed by the volume and rate that blood is pumped and the pancreas uses chemicals (insulin or glucagon) to control levels.
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